CHAPTER 2: EUROPEAN COLONIES IN AMERICA The Big Picture: Following Columbus voyages, European nations competed to establish colonies in the Americas. By 1733 the English had founded a diverse group of colonies along the Atlantic Ocean seaboard. Their efforts, however, had disastrous consequences for the Native Americans. CHAPTER 2 SECTION 1: EUROPEAN SETTLEMENTS IN NORTH AMERICA Main Idea: In the 1500s and 1600s,
European nations led by Spain, continued to explore, claim territory, and build settlements in America. Spanish Conquistadors 1494: Catholic Spain and Portugal appeal to the Pope to resolve competing claims to the New World the Treaty of Tordesillas: drew a line on the map and gave all land to the west of the line to Spain and all land east to Portugal Ponce de Leon & Florida Spanish explorers called conquistadors
began exploring the Caribbean, South, and Central America after Columbus Their goals were God, gold, glory Ponce de Leon, had sailed with Columbus, was governor of Puerto Rico, and searched for the fabled fountain of youth He became the first Spanish explorer in mainland North America when he claimed Cortez and the Aztec Cortez claimed and explored Mexico in an attempt to find gold When attempting to conquer the Aztec, he was aided by the enemies of
the Aztec and an ancient legend that made them believe the Spanish were messengers from the Gods The Aztec fell to the Spanish in 1521 Golden Cities and other Explorers The successful domination of the Aztec and persistent rumors of cities of gold encouraged other explorers to push into modern-day Mexico, Texas, and Florida Explorers like de Soto, Cabrillo
and de Coronado explored as far north as Tennessee and as far west as California, but did not find the gold they wanted Eventually the Spanish focused on mining in Mexico In 1565 the Spanish establish a Spain Builds an Empire Social Structure Spanish crown appointed viceroyalty to run new colonies that were being established Pe Also key to the structure nin were missionaries who
served to convert nativessul to Catholicism and to are teach the faithful More Power Fewest s People Tho se Creoles bor Pureblood n in Spanish
born in Spa New in World Mestizos Mulattoes Born mixed Born mixed with Natives with Africans Africans/Natives Least Power Most People Purebloods
Land, Labor, and the Pueblo Revolt Spanish established the encomienda system: Spanish received grants of land from the crown and the use of labor from the people who lived on the land The Natives were expected to convert to Christianity and work for the new owner The owner was expected to treat the natives humanely, but they were routinely enslaved and worked to death on plantations called haciendas Populations declined from disease and ill treatment, landowners came to depend on enslaved Africans 1680: Pueblo Indians revolt against the Spanish led by a shaman named Pop He was successful in driving the Spanish out of Santa Fe, but in 1692 Spanish soldiers retook the area
Other Nations Explore Englands Navy 1497: John Cabot arrives in Newfoundland & thinks he is in Asia; claims it for England 1500s- England realizes it is new land and begins looking for a northwest passage to Asia 1577: Protestant Queen Elizabeth builds up the English navy to challenge Catholic Spain; Sir Francis Drake first to circumnavigate the globe
New France 1524: Giovanni de Verrazano explores from the Carolinas to Maine for France 1534: Jacques Cartier discovers the St. Lawrence River and explores Quebec and Montreal 1608: Samuel de Champlain establishes trade in furs and fish in Quebec 1666: Sieur de la Salle explores Great Lakes region and Mississippi River, claiming the land for France (called it Louisiana for French king Louis XIV) New Netherland 1609: Henry Hudson sent by the Netherlands to find the Northwest Passage
He discovers the Hudson River and claims land along the Atlantic coast for the Dutch Chapter 2 Review Write out Questions and Answers Chapter 2 Section 1 1. What were the three main goals of the Spanish conquistadors? 2. What effects did Spanish conquest and colonization have on Native Americans? CHAPTER 2 SECTION 2: THE ENGLISH IN VIRGINIA
Main Idea: After several failures, the English established a permanent settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. The First English Colonies Roanoke Queen Elizabeth allows Sir Walter Raleigh to lead an expedition the Atlantic Coast He calls the land Virginia after her (the virgin queen) 1587 Raleigh and governor John White establish a colony at Roanoke Island and established friendly relations with the Manteo
Virginia Dare first English born in the New World White was forced to return to England for supplies and was delayed in returning for 3 years due to war with Spain 1590: White returns but all of the settlers are gone, with only Croatoan carved on a post They are called the Lost Colony King James Charter Under King James I, England tries again to settle the Atlantic Coast Charter rights establish colonies was transferred
from Raleigh to the London Company and the Plymouth Company in 1606 These were joint-stock companies: investors pooled money to fund and govern the colony and split The Jamestown Colony First Settlers and Captain Smith 1606: 100 men arrive at the James River under the London Company and built Jamestown
The location was not ideal; swampy and in the middle of the Powhatan Confederacy The settlers succumbed to malaria and dysentery and many were gentry, who refused to work By January 1608, only 38 men remained Captain John Smith became the leader of Jamestown and imposed military discipline in the colony he was able to trade for food with the local tribe and also
been saved from being executed by Pocahontas, the chiefs daughter conditions improved in the colony, but John Smith was forced to return to England after being burned in a gun powder accident The Starving Time and Tobacco London Company sent more settlers in 1609, offering free passage to anyone willing to work for seven years The winter of 1609-1610 was the worst in the colony, called the starving time: many died from Indian raids and starvation
John Rolfe saves the colony by experimenting with the cultivation of tobacco 1613: Rolfe secures peace between Jamestown and the Algonquians by marrying Pocahontas 1622: relations with the natives deteriorate after Powhatan and Pocahontas die Settlers were taking increasing amounts of land for tobacco cultivation, triggering an attack by the Powhatans Many, including Rolfe, died and the crown revoked the Virginia Companys charter, but the colony survived Virginia Grows and Changes The Headright System and the House of Burgesses
1618: the Virginia Company begins offering headrights: 50 acres of land for each family member and servant or for any one else they paid passage for Artisans and 100 single women were also sent to make the colony more stable By the 1640s, there were 8,000 settlers; by 1650 16,000 1619: formation of the House of Burgesses: membership went to white, landholding males They had the power to raise taxes and make laws, but the laws could be vetoed by the governor who was appointed by the crown This was the first legislature in America Colonial Workers The majority of workers are indentured servants: they received passage to America and worked 4 to 7
years at the end of service, they received clothes as well as tools or land Men outnumbered women 3 to 1 1619: Dutch ship arrives with 20 African slaves; by the late 1600s, slavery replaced indentured servants for cheap labor Colonial Conflict Conflict increases between rich settlers in the east and poor settlers in the west dealing with high taxes and conflict with Natives Governor William Berkeley refuses to aid settlers, hoping for good fur trading with the Natives
Bacons Rebellion: former indentured servants march on Jamestown, burning the city the rebellion collapses when Bacon becomes ill and dies, but the House of Burgesses does open more land to settlement and slave labor increases Chapter 2 Review Write out Questions and Answers Chapter 2 Section 2 3. What was life like in Jamestown during the starving time? 4. What is the historical significance of Virginias House of Burgesses?
5. Which country, Spain or England, had better methods for establishing colonies in the Americas? Explain. CHAPTER 2 SECTION 3: THE NORTHERN COLONIES Main Idea: The Pilgrims founded colonies in Massachusetts based on Puritan religious ideals, while dissent led to the founding of other New England colonies. Puritans Flee to Freedom Puritans and
Separatists Protestant Reformation led to establishment of the Church of England (Anglican Church) Puritans felt the Anglican Church was still too Catholic, and wanted to purify it further Separatists wanted a complete break with the Anglican Church and were persecuted in England for their beliefs Founding Plymouth Colony 1608: group of Separatists move to the Netherlands but left
several years later because they did not want their children to adopt Dutch customs A group of merchants formed a joint-stock company and got land from the Virginia Company 1620: 35 Puritans and 66 other settlers left on the Mayflower under the leadership of William Bradford They were headed to the Hudson River but were blown off course and landed at Cape Cod While on board, the 41 men signed the Mayflower Compact: it created a government chosen by the consent of the governed and they would obey all laws made for the good of the group Half of the group died in the first winter, the rest survived with aid from the Wampanoag Indians (especially Squanto) The next year was so successful, the Pilgrims held a feast for their neighbors that we now commemorate as Thanksgiving Bradford continued to serve as governor until his death in 1657
Dissent Among the Puritans A City Upon A Hill Success at Plymouth encouraged thousands of Puritans to move to New England After getting funding from the Massachusetts Bay Company, they chose John Winthrop as their leader They hoped to create a haven and example of Puritan living, what they called a city upon a hill 11 ships and 700 people arrived in America in 1630 and grew quickly, establishing towns in Boston, Salem, and Concord The Company created the Massachusetts General Court which had the ability to elect officers and
make laws Each town elected members to the court, which elected a council headed by Winthrop Success led to the Great Migration: 20,000 English settlers arrive in New England between 1620 and 1643 Dissent Puritans were not tolerant of beliefs that differed from Church canon (law) Society and government were closely linked to the church (attendance at church was mandatory, hard work was stressed) Dissenters either voluntarily left, or were forced to leave the colony Thomas Hooker- wanted government chosen by all
leaves to form Connecticut 1639 they write the 1st written constitution: Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (gave voting rights to all free men, not just church members) Rhode Island and New Hampshire Roger Williams believed in religious tolerance (even for Jews) and wanted separation of church and state He also believed the colony should pay the Native Americans for the land they settled on He purchases land from the Narragansett Indians and forms a colony in Providence, Rhode Island
Anne Hutchinson causes an uproar when she claims people can read and understand the Bible for themselves without the input of a minister She was banished and went to Rhode Island Her brother-in-law left Massachusetts in Witchcraft Trials in Salem 1692 girls in Salem Village began acting strangely and claimed they were bewitched Belief in witchcraft was common in the 1600s
Hysteria gripped the colony and eventually hundreds of people were arrested and 19 were executed as witches Eventually the trials were condemned and remaining prisoners were set free Life in New England Education and Government Puritans wanted their children to be able to read the Bible and established the first public schools in America They also established the first colleges in New England: Harvard and Yale
Starting in the late 1600s, most colonies were converted to royal colonies under the control of the English king The town, with its school and meeting house, was the center of life in the New England colonies Town government was most relevant to peoples lives At town meetings church members and land owners were allowed to vote for selectmen and Relations with Native Americans As colonies expanded, they had increasing conflict with Native Americans As colonies became more self-sufficient, they were less likely to try to have good relations with surrounding tribes
Many Puritans viewed Natives as heathens that needed to be driven out or killed 1637: Pequot War: Pequot in Connecticut are slaughtered by settlers and their Narragansett & Mohegan allies over trade with the Dutch 1675: King Philips War: Native Americans led by Metacomet (or King Philip) attack colonial towns Over 600 on both sides died and the tribe was all but wiped out Chapter 2 Review Write out Questions and Answers Chapter 2 Section 3 6. What was the central agreement of the Mayflower Compact, and where were the settlers when they signed it?
7. How was Rhode Island different from most of the other colonies? CHAPTER 2 SECTION 4: THE MIDDLE AND SOUTHERN COLONIES Main Idea: Events in England during and after the English Civil War led to a new wave of colonization along the Atlantic coast south of New England. A New Era of Colonization Charles II and the Restoration
In order to pay back his supporters in the Civil War, King Charles II gave land grants in the new world called proprietary colonies (there were 4: Pennsylvania, Carolina, New York and New Jersey) These colonies were not ruled by investors or colonial legislators, but by their Lords Proprietors Son of a supporter, William Penn forms Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers and others suffering persecution New Netherland becomes New York
Charles gives land to his brother James, Duke of York, ignoring an existing Dutch colony After briefly struggling for control, England pushed out the Dutch in 1674 New York was a very diverse colony with English, Dutch, Scandinavian, German, and French settlers The Duke later gave part of his land to two proprietors who named their colony New Jersey After disputes over land titles, both New York and New Jersey became royal colonies in the early 1700s New Southern Colonies The Carolinas 8 men were granted a charter that made them co-owners of Carolina
(Latin for Charles) Settlement was slow and some of the men gave up their claims Eventually settlers arrived, but the Northern and Southern parts developed very differently The Southern part had large plantations and ports like Charles Town The North was dominated by small farmers and had no harbor 1729: the proprietors sold their land to the crown and the king Georgia Georgia is created as a buffer
zone between the Carolinas and Spanish-Florida James Oglethorpe proposed making Georgia a colony for those thrown into debtors prison in England he received a charter from King George II and founded Georgia in 1732 (it became a royal colony in 1751) Originally the colony had strict rules about slavery, land ownership, and personal behavior, but they were gradually relaxed
Quakers Settle Pennsylvania/ The Founding of Maryland The Quakers The king wanted to get rid of the Quakers, who were unpopular in England They believed in direct communication with God and had no ministers They believed in equality of all men and women and were pacifists (refused to fight) The king encouraged Quakers to migrate to Pennsylvania Because of its tolerance and wide advertising, thousands came from Germany and Scandinavia Delaware 1638: small group of Swedish
immigrants settle near modern Wilmington, DE but were overrun by the Dutch in 1655 and the English after that William Penn later bought land from the Duke of York to gain a water passage to the Atlantic for Pennsylvania Maryland George Calvert, Lord Baltimore received land from the king to create a haven for Catholics that his son named Maryland Chapter 2 Review Write out Questions and Answers
Chapter 2 Section 4 8. Which two colonies were the most tolerant of other religions? 9. How were the colonies established under Englands King Charles II different from earlier American colonies? 10.Many towns were named starting with New. What does this say about Europeans intentions in the Americas? Chapter 2 Review Write out Questions and Answers When John Smith became the leader of Jamestown, he told the colonists: You must obey this now for a Law, that he
that will not worke shall not eate (except by sickness he be disabled) for the labours of thirtie or fortie hones and industrious men shall not be consumed to maintaine an hundred and fiftie idle loyterers. ~ John Smith, Generall Historie of Virginia, New England, & the Summer Isles 11.What problem was Smith trying to address in this passage? 12.Was Smiths new law too harsh? Why or why not? Chapter 2 Review Write out Questions and Answers Read the passage in Section 3 that begins the heading Relations with Native
Americans (page 55-56). Then answer the following question. 13.The last paragraph of the passage says that King Philips War was costly for both sides. This means A. B. C. D. the war was fast and easy for both sides. the colonists suffered very little. both sides lost a lot in the war. Native Americans had few losses.
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