Chapter 18: Development & Geography

Chapter 18: Development & Geography

Human Geography by Malinowski & Kaplan CHAPTER 18 LECTURE OUTLINE DEVELOPMENT & GEOGRAPHY 18-1 Chapter 18 Modules 18A Meanings of Development and Development Disparities Today 18B Modernization and Economic Development

18C World Systems Perspective on Development 18D Profiles of Development: The Bottom Billion 18E Possible Solutions to the Development Crisis 18F Export-Led Approaches to Development 18G Structuralist and Sustainable Development Models Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 18-2 18A: Meanings of Development and

Development Disparities Today 1 World development focuses on raising the living standards of the poorest countries and reducing disparities among countries Poor countries are often referred to as the Third World, less developed countries, or the developing world Rich countries are often referred to as the First World, developed countries, or more developed countries Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

18-3 GNI per Capita Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 18A.1 18-4

Purchasing Power Parity Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 18A.2 18-5 18A: Meanings of Development and Development Disparities Today 2 Human Development Index (HDI)

A measure of development that includes measures of income, education, and health (life expectancy) Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 18-6 Subjective Well-Being Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 18A.4 18-7 18B: Modernization & Economic Development 2 Two views on development disparities Underdevelopment is a function of progress Underdevelopment is intrinsic to a global economic structure that began with colonialism

and persists with neocolonialism Modernization Theory For countries to develop, they need to adopt elements of Western society, including values Neoliberalism Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 18-8 Rostows Model

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 18B.2 18-9 GDP per Capita over Time Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 18B.3 18-10 18B: Modernization & Economic Development 2 Jeffrey Sachs viewed development as a process of overcoming a series of development traps Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

18-11 % Using the Internet Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 18B.5 18-12 18C: World Systems Perspective on

Development A lot of modernization theory is based on a Western model and assumes that each country develops on its own The world systems perspective views the economic system as a whole Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 18-13

European Colonies Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 18C.1 18-14 Core-Periphery Relationships Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 18C.5 18-15 Commodity Export Economies Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 18C.6

18-16 18D: Profiles of Development: The Bottom Billion According Collier, there now exists a 3-way stratification of the worlds population The Fortunate Billion (Affluent Societies)

The Majority (Developing Societies) The Bottom Billion (Stagnant Economies) Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 18-17

The Undeveloped World Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 18D.1 18-18 18D: Profiles of Development: The Bottom Billion According Collier, there

now exists a 3-way stratification of the worlds population The Fortunate Billion (Affluent Societies) The Majority (Developing Societies) The Bottom Billion

(Stagnant Economies) Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 18-19 18E: Possible Solutions to the Development Crisis One possible solution is to accelerate economic growth by way of industrialization, but to do so requires a large portion of a countrys economy

To overcome this, countries may begin by manufacturing lower value-added products, such as textiles, before attempting higher value-added products, such as electronics Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 18-20 Factors Needed for Industrialization

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 18E.1 18-21 Average Annual GDP Growth per Capita, 2000-2007 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 18E.2 18-22 Primary School Completion Rate, 2003-2006 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 18E.3

18-23 18F: Export-Led Approaches to Development A view that production of goods for export, sometimes aided by the government, is the key to economic development The Tiger economies of East Asia successfully employed this strategy Chinas exports may be about 40% of its economy

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 18-24 Asian Incomes Relative to the U.S. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 18F.3

18-25 18G: Structuralist & Sustainable Development Models Many approaches to development can be said to fit into the structuralist school of development Sees government interaction as key Can be full government control or partial Import substitution strategies are common

Sustainable development seeks a more even distribution of wealth and protection of the environment Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 18-26

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