Chapter 15

Chapter 15

16601715 CHAPTER 3 CONTROLLING THE EDGES OF THE CONTINENT CREATED EQUAL JONES WOOD MAY BORSTELMANN RUIZ 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers How miserable that man is that Governes a People where six parts of seaven at least are Poore Endebted Discontented and Armed. Sir William Berkeley, Governor the

colony of Virginia, 1676 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers 1660 1661 1663 1664 1665 1666 1669 1670 1672 1673

TIMELINE Navigation Act Councils for Trade and Plantations created King Louis XIV, The Sun King, assumes control of France Louis XIV assumes control of New France Royal Adventurers into Africa granted monopoly in slave trade Charles II regains control of NewNetherland The Great Plague in Europe Severe drought in New Mexico Ashley-Cooper and Locke draw up Fundamental Constitutions Charter granted to Hudsons Bay Company Royal Africa Company granted monopoly in slave trade Joliet and Marquette explore from upper Mississippi to Gulf of Mexico

La Salle builds Fort Frontenac Plantation Duty Act 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers 1674 1675 1676 1680 1681 1682 1685 1688 1689

1692 1697 TIMELINE continued Peace of Westminster Metacoms War (King Philips War) Bacons Rebellion Pueblo revolt William Penn granted charter to Pennsylvania La Salle explores the lower Mississippi region, naming Louisiana Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes James II takes English throne William of Orange and The Glorious Revolution

King Williams War Salem Witch Trials King Williams War ends Spanish mission, Cahokia established (Illinois) 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers 1701 1702 1703 1705 1710 1711

1712 1714 1715 1718 TIMELINE continued War of Spanish Succession begins The Act of Settlement English raiders attack St. Augustine, Florida New Jersey becomes an English royal colony Queen Annes War begins Spanish mission, Kaskaskia, established (Illinois) The Naval Stores Act

Carys Rebellion Tuscarora Indians war Crozat granted control of Louisiana War of Spanish Succession ends Louis XIV dies Yamasee rebellion San Antonio de Valero established 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers CONTROLLING THE EDGES OF THE CONTINENT Overview France and the American Interior The Spanish Empire on the Defensive

Englands American Empire Takes Shape Bloodshed in the English Colonies Consequences of War and Growth 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers FRANCE AND THE AMERICAN INTERIOR The Rise of the Sun King Exploring the Mississippi Valley King Williams War in the Northeast Founding the Louisiana Colony 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers

France in the American Interior, 16701720 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Rise of the Sun King French King Louis XIV: The French mercantilist strategy to use labor efficiently, import resources and export goods to trade for gold and silver. The settlers of colonies were to send need natural resources and to make

consumers for the manufactured goods. Jean-Baptiste Colbert, French finance minister shipped agriculture equipment, military governor, artisans and servants to Quebec to promote a vibrant community. Severe winters and short growing seasons hindered growth Dissenters were not sent to colonies as the English did, but rather prevented from leaving France However, 150,000 did manage to migrate to the New World, and many to the English colonies. 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Exploring the Mississippi Valley Jean Nicolet: 1643, travels all the way to modern-day

Green Bay, Wisconsin Joilet and Marquette: 1673, explore the upper Mississippi to the Arkansas River La Salle: 1673, erects Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario. 1682: La Salle explores the lower Mississippi to the Gulf When he tries to return with ships through the Gulf, his miscalculations land him in Texas where he is killed and most die in the wilderness. 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers King Williams War in the Northeast William III, a Protestant takes the English throne in 1689

beginning a 100-year war between Protestant England and Catholic France The war stretches to America English align with the Iroquois French with the Hurons In 1697 the war ends in stalemate The Iroquois pledge to remain neutral during future colonial wars King Carlos II of Spain dies without an heir. Both England and France vie for Spain in the War of Spanish Succession, 1701 to 1714. 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers

Founding the Louisiana Colony La Salle had claimed the entire river basin of the Mississippi for the French, naming it Louisiana. Iberville and his brother Bienville Fort Louis at Biloxi Bay Other French posts emerge Peoria, Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Fort de Chartes, Detroit Louisiana granted to a Paris merchant, Antoine Crozat 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers

THE SPANISH EMPIRE ON THE DEFENSIVE The Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico Navajos and Spanish on the Southwestern Frontier Borderland Conflict in Texas and Florida 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico Drought, Apache and Navajo attacks, and controversy over religion flame rebellion by Pueblos at Santa Fe.

Sexuality: Pueblos clashed with Catholics in their acceptance of homosexuality, the importance of sexuality to social and spiritual life. Mixed-race people supported the rebellion as well Pop, militant leader, invokes Po he yemu, the sun spirit August 10th the Pueblos triumph over the Catholic settlers 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Navajos and Spanish on the Southwestern Frontier Navajos benefit from Pueblo refugees

Horses, improved corn farming, textiles, weaving The friar-explorer Eusebio Kino Travels to the Sonoran Desert in Arizona Meets the Yuma Indians and deduces that California is part of the mainland Spanish unable to benefit from this knowledge until 1760s 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Borderland Conflict in Texas and Florida Texas

Spanish establish several colonies in Texas Expanded Spanish missionaries and outposts in east Texas. San Antonio de Valero (1718) Florida Florida natives gravitate to Carolinas nearer the English Spanish livestock ruining gardens and Catholicism breeds resentment in the Florida Indians 1702: English raiders attack St. Augustine 1704: Carolina Governor, James Moore invades Apalachee Floriday destroying the missions 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers

ENGLANDS AMERICAN EMPIRE TAKES SHAPE Monarchy Restored and Navigation Controlled Fierce Anglo-Dutch Competition The New Restoration Colonies 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Monarch Restored and Navigation Controlled 1660: Navigation Act Merchants could not conduct trade to or from English colonies in foreign-owned ships

Non-English products from foreign lands had to be carried in English ships or with mostly English crews Certain products could not go straight from colonies to European ports, but had to pass through England first 1663: Navigation Act Products from European ports to colonies had to go through England 1673: Plantation Duty Act Captains had to pay plantation duty before moving goods between colonies 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Fierce Anglo-Dutch Competition Navigation Acts disturb Dutch trade and war breaks out between England and Holland

Peace of Westminister in 1674 brings gains to the English: Island in Africa at the Gambia and Cape Coast Castle on the Gold Coast challenging Dutch dominance New York, the region from Delaware River and the Connecticut River 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The New Restoration Colonies Charles II grants charters 1670: Hudson Bay Company, trade, minerals, land in northern Canada 1679: New Hampshire a proprietorship

1681: William Penn granted a charter to Pennsylvania 1674: East and West Jersey divided. In 1702 united. 1669: Ashley-Cooper, Carolina proprietor, and John Locke, draw up Fundamental Constitutions 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers BLOODSHED IN THE ENGLISH COLONIES Metacoms War in New England Bacons Rebellion in Virginia The Glorious Revolution in England

The Glorious Revolution in America 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Metacoms War in New England, 1675-1676 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Metacoms War in New England Metacoms (Wampanoag tribe) grievances with the English: Indians were cheated in trade deals Livestock trampled crops Colonists outnumber the Native Americans

John Sassamon, and Indian informer is killed by and 3 Wampanoags are hanged for the crime by the English January 1675: The Great Swamp Fight Narragansetts align with the Wampanoags Mohawks oppose Metacom and Christian Indians join colonial forces August 1675: Metacom beheaded , wife and children sold into slavery in the West Indies, and colonists rebuild 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Bacons Rebellion in Virginia 1676: Nathaniel Bacon wages a war against the Occaneechis and the Susquehannocks, challenging

leadership of Governor Berkeley. Bacon is joined by backcountry leaders, landless poor and runaway workers and slaves looking to grab some of the Indians land. Summer of 1676, Bacon takes over Berkeleys Green Springs, and burns down Jamestown. Ocotober 1676, Bacon dies and reinforcements come from England 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Glorious Revolution in England 1685: Charles II dies, and James II, a Catholic, succeeds him.

1688: Fear over prosecution of Protestants and faced with a male heir to James II, William of Orange mounts an army and invades England James abdicates, and Parliament grants toleration to Protestants 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Glorious Revolution in America Before James II abdicated, he nullified charters for some colonies and created the Dominion of New England Sir Edmond Andros ruled the Dominion strictly

and enforced the Navigation Laws. April 1689, a rebellion in Boston throws Andros in jail New Yorkers also oust Dominion officials and militia captain Leisler begins a Revolution. Maryland, Protestants seize the government in support of the new constitutional monarchy. 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers CONSEQUENCES OF WAR AND GROWTH, 1690-1715 Salems Wartime Witch Hunt The Uneven Costs of War Storm Clouds in the South

2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Salems Wartime Witch Hunt Salem Village, 1692 Young women suffer convulsive fits, hallucinations and accuse a slave couple of witchcraft. The accusations grow, and hangings ensue. Mass hysteria? Mosquito encephalitis? Posttraumatic stress brought on by war? 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers

The Uneven Costs of War Some benefit: Farmers with access to ports to sell goods to fleets Wartime smuggling Privateers Shipbuilders Some paid the price: Poor people paid regressive taxes Poor people paid wartime prices for food Poor people died in combat or of disease 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers

Storm Clouds in the South The Carolinas become populated by radicals from the Restoration, runaway servants, or migrants from the proprietors Carolina settlement on the Ashley River Carys Rebellion in 1710 recognizes North Carolina independent of Carolina 1711: Tuscarora Indians rebel against corrupt traders and land encroachment, but are defeated by settlers, and Yamasee Indians 1715: Yamasee, with the support of Creek Indians, Spanish settlers, and French traders rebel against English. 2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers

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