Chapter 14 Section 3:

Chapter 14 Section 3:

Chapter 14 Section 3: New Rivals on the World Stage Africa Slave Trade The Dutch East India Trading Company Set up settlement in southern Africa, at the Cape of Good Hope, developed into a

permanent colony. The primary market for African slaves was in the Middle east, where most were used as domestic servants. Boers

Dutch famers, began to settle areas outside the city of Cape Town. Slavery in Africa has been occurring since ancient times.

Plantations grew and required more workers. Small American Indian populations in the New World could not supply the need. Indians were decimated by disease. African slaves were being shipped to Brazil and

the Caribbean to work on the plantations in the New World. Spanish ships carried the first boatload of African slaves directly from Africa to the New World in 1518. Growth in the Slave Trade

10 million slaves were transported to the Americas between the early sixteenth and nineteenth centuries? High death rates were one reason for the astonishing number of slaves being transported to the New World.

African slaves were packed into cargo ships. 300-350 per ship. Chained in holds without sanitary facilities or enough space to stand up.

The voyage took at least 100 days. King Affonso of Congo Complained his country was being depleted by the slave trade.

Local rulers in Africa view the slave trade as a source of income. African Middle Men Merchants, local elites, or rules who were very

active in the process and were often able to dictate the price and number of slaves to European purchasers. Effects of the Slave Trade Political effects of the slave trade The need to maintain a constant supply of

slaves led to increased warfare and violence as African chiefs and their followers, armed with guns acquired from the trade in slaves, increased their raids and wars on neighboring peoples. What happen to the nation of Benin in West Africa as a result of the slave trade?

Population declined and warfare increased, lost faith in gods, human sacrifices ,a corrupt and savage place. Society of Friends Also known as the Quakers, began to

criticize slavery in the 1770s, excluded from their church any member adhering to slave trafficking. The West in Southeast Asia Explain why Portugals efforts to dominate the trade of Southeast Asia was not successful?

Portuguese lacked both the numbers and the wealth to overcome local resistance and colonize the Asian regions. Their empire was too large and Portugal too small to maintain it. The Spanish were able to gain control of

the Philippines, which became a major Spanish base in trade. Arrival of the Dutch and English who were better financed was the primary threat to the Portuguese Empire in Southeast Asia? Explain how the Dutch succeeded in bringing

almost the entire Indonesian archipelago (group of islands) under their control? Dutch seized a Portuguese fort in the Moluccas (Indonesia) and the gradually pushed the Portuguese out of the Spice Trade. Malay States

Modern Day Malaysia Why were the mainland states better able to resist the European challenge than the states in the Malay world? Cohesive nature of the states.

The spice trade was enormously profitable. European merchants and rulers were determined to gain control of the sources of these spices. The French and British in India Mughals

Not natives of India, came from the mountainous region north of the Ganges River. Babur

Founder of the Mughal dynasty / father descended from Asian Conqueror Tamerlane, mother from the Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan. It was Baburs grandson, who brought Mughal rule to most of India, creating the greatest Indian empire since the Mauryan dynasty nearly two thousand years earlier. Impact of the Western Powers

During the mid-1600s, what three nations concentrated on the spice trade? Dutch French

British Sir Robert Clive Aggressive British empire builder who eventually became the chief representative of the East India Company in India.

Black Hole of Calcutta Underground prison for holding the prisoners in Bengal Battle of Plassey 1757

small British force numbering about three thousand defeated a Mughal-led army more than ten times its size. Seven Years War The British forced the French to withdraw completely from India.

Seven Years War, (175663), the last major conflict before the French Revolution to involve all the great powers of Europe. Generally, France, Austria, Saxony, Sweden, and Russia were aligned on one side against Prussia, Hanover, and Great Britain on the other.

The war arose out of the attempt of the Austrian Habsburgs to win back the rich province of Silesia, which had been wrested from them by Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia during the War of the Austrian Succession (174048). But the Seven Years War also involved overseas colonial struggles between Great Britain and France, the main points of contention between those two traditional rivals being the struggle for control of North America (the French and Indian War; 175463) and India.

With that in mind, the Seven Years War can also be seen as the European phase of a worldwide nine years war fought between France and Great Britain. Britains alliance with Prussia was undertaken partly in order to protect electoral Hanover, the British ruling dynastys Continental possession, from the threat of a French takeover. China Ming Dynasty

1369 1644 began a new era of greatness in Chinese history. China extended its rule into Mongolia and Central Asia. The Ming Dynasty began to decline.

Weak rulers led to a period of government corruption. Manchus Frontier tribe, lived northeast of the Great Wall in the area known today as

Manchuria. In 1644, the Manchus overthrew the last Ming emperor and declared the creation of new dynasty with the title of the Qing (Pure). Kangxi One of the two Qing monarchs with Qianlong, ruled

China for well over a century middle of 17th century to the end of the 18th century. Responsible for much of the greatness of Manchu China. In 1644 the Manchus overthrew the last Ming emperor and declared the creation of a new dynasty with the reign title of the Qing (Ching Pure).

Western Roads Explain why the Manchu dynasty began internal decay. Military campaigns cost money, population growth led to economic hardships at the same time Europe was

increasing power for more trade. Lord Macartney Visited Beijing to press for liberalization of trade restrictions.

Emperor Qianlong Expressed no interest in British products. The Chinese would later pay for their rejection of the British request. Japan

Tokugawa Ieyasu Took the title of shogun (general) in 1603, and act that initiated the most powerful and long-lasting of all the Japanese shogunates.

Shogun Japanese for general Opening to the West Francis Xavier

The first Jesuit missionary in Japan, arrived in 1549 and had some success in converting the local populations to Christianity. Why did Tokugawa Ieyasu expel all missionaries?

They interfered in local politics. Japanese Christians were persecuted. The Americas Why did Spains importance as a commercial power begin to decline?

Drop in the output of silver The West Indies Sugar Factories Sugar plantations in the Caribbean

Where did the first successful slave uprising occur in 1793? Saint Domingue (Present day Haiti) South America What country claimed all of North America as

part of its American overseas empire? Spain Henry Hudson English explore, hired by the Dutch, discovered in 1609 the rive that bears his name. Within a few years, the

Dutch had established the mainland colony of New Netherlands. In 1664, the English seized the colony of New Netherlands. What did they rename it to? New York

Where was the first permanent English settlement in America located? Jamestown, founded in 1607 in modern Virginia

Massachusetts Bay Colony Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts Bay Colony, one of the original English settlements in present-day Massachusetts, settled in 1630 by a group of about 1,000 Puritan refugees from England under Gov. John Winthrop and Deputy Gov. Thomas Dudley

Mercantilism Mercantilism is a national economic policy that is designed to maximize the exports of a nation. (Trade) Jacques Cartier

Jacques Cartier was a explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France. Jacques Cartier was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence

Samuel de Champlain Established a settlement at Quebec in 1608 that the French began to take a more serious interest in Canada as a colony. In 1663, Canada was made the property of the French crown and administered by a French governor like a French province.

Treaty of Utrecht French began to cede some their American possession to their English rival. As a result of the Seven Years War, they would surrender the rest of their Canadian lands in 1763.

French Bourbons With the abdication of Napoleon on 11 April 1814 the Bourbon dynasty was restored to the kingdom of France in the person of Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI. Napoleon escaped from exile and Louis fled in March 1815.

Asiento (Seat) Britains entry into Spanish American markets first came in 1713, when the British were granted the privilege, known as asiento of transporting 4,500 slaves a year into Spanish Latin America.

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