Chapter 13, Emotion

Chapter 13, Emotion

Unit VIII Test, Motivation and Emotion Test information: About 40 m.c. questions and several essays Study Reminders The textbook website has flashcards and practice questions after each module and at the end of the unit

The course website also has the learning targets Motivation Mods 37-40 Instinct/evolutionary 391 Instinct complex, unlearned behavior exhibited by all members of a species

Ex: bears hibernating Ex: birds building nests Do humans have instincts? After Darwin explained ho evolution works psychologists tried to link every human behavior to an instinct Few if any human instincts

exist What we know: Genes predispose you to display specific behaviors This emphasizes biological factors Drive-Reduction Theory, 391 A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that

motivates an organism to satisfy the need (Hull, 1951). Drive reduction theory and Homeostasis, 391 The physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis, the maintenance of a steady internal state (e.g., maintenance of steady body temperature).

Drive Reduction Food Empty Stomach Stomach Full (Food Deprived)

Organism Drive Reduction and Incentives, 392 A positive or negative stimulus that motivates behavior Fresh baked pizza to a hungry person as an example (if they like pizza!)

Or money for a motivated employee Optimum Arousal Theory, 392 Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it. Young monkeys and children are known to explore the environment. Optimal arousal explains why we exhibit curiosity, taking

risks, and exploring. These reduce boredom. Randy Faris/ Corbis Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Optimal arousal and the Yerkes Dodson law 392 Theres an optimal level of arousal for

performance Too much or not enough lead to lesser results Hierarchy of Needs Theory, 393 Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that certain needs have priority over

others. Physiological needs like breathing, thirst, and hunger come before psychological needs such as achievement, selfesteem, and the need for recognition. (1908-1970)

Challenging orthodoxy Freuds view of motivation was physiological. Skinner saw motivation as nothing more than repertoires of behaviors that are determined by reinforcements or punishments Maslow challenged these views: we are motivated by forces from within by our wishes and plans. Hierarchy of Needs, 393

Joe Skipper/ Reuters/ Corbis Mario Tama/ Getty Images David Portnoy/ Getty Images for Stern Menahem Kahana/ AFP/ Getty Images Hurricane Survivors

T he hypothalamus, 398 The hypothalamus controls eating and other body maintenance functions (body temp, thirst, sexual behavior, etc.)

The Physiology of Hunger Body Chemistry and the Brain Set-Point Theory, 398 Manipulating the lateral and the ventromedial hypothalamus alters the bodys weight

thermostat. If weight is lost, food intake increases and energy expenditure decreases. If weight is gained, the opposite takes place. Ostracism and brain activity, 414 Social exclusion leads to

demoralization, depression, and at times nasty behavior. Can lead to changes in brain activity One example is cyber ostracism: unanswered email leads one to develop increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex Social network influence, 416 Social networking strengthens connections to people we already know. It also consumes a lot of our time.

Healthy disclosure, 417 Narcissism: those who score high on this measure of selfesteem are active on social networking sites. Module 82

Flow & Rewards, 827 Flow is the experience between no work and a lot of work. Flow marks immersion into ones work. Csikszentmihalyi, 828 People who flow in their work (artists, dancers,

composers etc.) are driven less by extrinsic rewards (money, praise, promotion) and more by intrinsic rewards. 82-5: Human Factors, 840 Human Factor Psychologists design

machines that assist our natural perceptions. Courtesy of General Electric Photodisc/ Punchstock The knobs for the stove burners on the right are easier to understand than those on the left. The Interviewer Illusion, 831

1. 2. 3. 4. Richard Nisbett: Interviewers often

overrate their Intention vs. Habits: Intensions matter, but discernment. long- lasting habits matter even more. Successful Employees: Interviewers are more likely to talk about those employees that turned out successful. Presumptions about Candidates: Interviewers presume (wrongly) that what

we see (candidate) is what we get. Preconceptions: An interviewers prior knowledge about the candidate may affect her judgment. 360 degree feedback, 833 Appraising performance from multiple sources results in two things: 1) employee retention, and 2) the encouragement of better performance.

Achievement motives, 833 Achievement Motivation a desire for significant accomplishment Desire for control for mastery of things, people, ideas or skills for attaining a high standard

Defined by Henry Murray, 1938 Duckworth and grit, 834 Angela Duckworth: this is essential for achievement Passion and

perseverance in pursuing long term goals Emotion Modules 41-42 and 83 James-Lange Theory, 421 William James and Carl Lange proposed

an idea that was diametrically opposed to the common-sense view. The JamesLange Theory proposes that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience. Cannon-Bard Theory

Walter Cannon and Phillip Bard questioned the James-Lange Theory and proposed that an emotiontriggering stimulus and the body's arousal take place simultaneously.

Two-Factor Theory (cognitive labeling), 422 Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer proposed yet another theory which suggests our physiology and cognitions create emotions. Emotions

have two factors physical arousal and cognitive label. Spillover effect, 422 Arousal from one event influences your emotional perception of the next event Example: after an invigorating run you find a message on your phone that you got that longsought job offer. You are much

more excited than you would be if it was after waking up from a nap. Cognition and Emotion Cognition May Not Proceed Emotion: Zajonc, LeDoux & Lazarus Robert Zajonc LeDouxs high and low road

Robert Zajoncs theory Zajonc (zee-ons) says some emotion occurs before cognition For example, likes, dislikes and fears all involve no conscious thinking

Cognition and Emotion Cognition May Not Proceed Emotion: Zajonc, LeDoux & Lazarus Lazarus Cognition and Emotion, 423 The brains shortcut for emotions

Richard Lazarus, 424 Emotional He basically agrees responses can with Schacter and occur without Singer. thinking. Theres a labeling We often

of an event. appraise things without consciously thinking of them. Embodied Emotion Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System

Emotions, fear, and the Limbic System A. most human fears are learned 1. Biology predisposes us to learn some fears quickly 2. The amygdala associates fear with certain situations (part of the limbic system) 3. A limbic system response deep in the brain L ie Detec tor Polygraph

machine commonly used in attempts to detect lies measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion perspiration

heart rate blood pressure breathing changes On what theory does the polygraph rest? Changes in physiological responses to questions indicate deception. Guilty knowledge: only

the person with knowledge of the crime would respond physiologically to the relevant questions. What are several problems with the polygraph? 1. Responses could indicate nervousness or anxiety

2. It more often labels the innocent guilty than the guilty innocent 3. Pathological liars can defeat it Gender and emotion detection, 434435 Women are generally better than men at detecting emotional cues. Also better at spotting a phony couple. Women are more expressive when describing felt emotion.

Women more likely to describe themselves as empathic, having an emotional understanding of others feelings And they actually are more open to feelings. Emotional Expression is universal, 435 When culturally diverse people were shown basic facial expressions, they did fairly well at recognizing them (Ekman & Matsumoto, 1989).

Elkman & Matsumoto, Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expression of Emotion Culture, gestures and facial expressions 1. Gestures/ hand signals differ from culture to culture 2. All peoples interpret facial expressions similarly: genetic similarity

Gestures are not universal, 435 Thumb and forefinger: Most countries, money France, something is perfect Mediterranean countries, vulgar gesture Facial Feedback Hypothesis 1. Relates to the James-Lange theory of

emotion. 2. Physical reactions to events are the cause of the emotion. 3. In our class experiment: those in the teeth group should rate the cartoons as more funny as indicated by a higher mean (ave.) Likert scale score. Did they? What does the research say? McCanne & Anderson,

1987: Experiments yielded data consistent with the hypothesis that facial muscle activity contributes to the experience of emotions. This is known as the facial feedback effect Catharsis Hypothesis

Catharsis emotional release catharsis hypothesis releasing aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges Catharsis research Expressing anger breeds more anger, and through reinforcement it is habit-forming. It is only helpful to express it when

you first wait for it to subside and then deal with the situation later in a civil manner. Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon When we feel happy we are more willing to help others. Peoples tendency to be

helpful when already in a good mood. Relative deprivation Happiness is not only relative to our past, but also to our comparisons with others. Relative Deprivation is the perception that we are relatively worse off than those we compare ourselves with.

Experienc ing Emotion, 851 Adaptation-Level Phenomenon 851 tendency to form judgements relative to a neutral level brightness of lights volume of sound level of income defined by our prior experience

Relative Deprivation 852 perception that one is worse offrelative to those with whom one compares oneself Predictors of Happiness, 852 Why are some people generally more happy than others?

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