Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Inheritance of Traits Introduction to Mendelian Genetics A Brief History In the past, people did not understand how traits were inherited, but there were many guesses based on things that could be observed. Two theories emerged.

Blending Theory - offspring are a straight mix. Particulate Theory - traits are inherited as "particles", offspring receive a "piece" from each parent, some pieces may hide the others. Golden Doodle

Who was Gregor Mendel? He was known as the FATHER OF GENETICS He discovered how traits were inherited. GENETICS study of heredity HEREDITY the passing of traits from parents to offspring

Mendels Peas Mendel did his study on pea plants which are easy to cross and have many traits. tall/short purple /white flowers smooth/wrinkled seed Pea plants can easily be self-fertilized

or cross-fertilized True-Breeding Plants -always create plants that look like themselves (purple or white flowers) Hybrids offspring of two different true breeding plants (Purple x White = Hybrid) Principle of Dominance &

Recessiveness Some traits are dominant over others. - Tall parent x Short parent = all tall hybrids *Tall, purple, and smooth are dominant traits (always observed if present) * Short, white, and wrinkled are recessive traits (hidden in presence of a dominant trait )

Mendel discovered that each trait is controlled by variations of genes (allele) Genes segment of DNA that determine your traits Genes are located on chromosomes Homologous Chromosomes & Alleles

Organisms have sets of chromosomes with each chromosome having a unique set of genes. Many organisms have two copies of each chromosome, one from each parent. Chromosomes that have the same genes are called homologous chromosomes because they have the same genes (homo=same, logos relation). They may have the same genes, but can have different versions of those genes,

called alleles. Principle of Segregation When a parent makes sperm or eggs, their homologous chromosomes separate so that each sperm or egg cell has only one of the two possible alleles. The gametes (egg or sperm) contain only one of the two possible chromosomes.

Question: Why is it necessary to donate only one copy of each chromosome to the child when humans normally have 2 copies? Quick Check - What do we know so far? 1. The Father of Genetics is ____________ 2. Genetics is the study of _____________, which is

how traits are passed from _________ to ____________ 3. Mendel studied what organism? ____________ 4. If one trait covers up another one, we say that it is ______________, the one that is covered up is ______ 5. A true-breeding plant is one that can only produce plants like itself a) true b) false 6. If a tall and a short plant are crossed, it will create a a) zygote

b) gene c) hybrid Mendels Experiments Mendels Crosses Explained T is the allele for tall (dominant) T is the allele for short (recessive) Y is the allele for smooth (dominant) y is the allele for wrinkled (recessive)

GENOTYPE - the pair of alleles an organism has for a gene (TT, Tt, tt) PHENOTYPE - the observable trait determined by the genotype Check for understanding 1. The passing of traits from parents to offspring is known as ____________________

2. Who was the father of genetics? _________ 3. Genes are located on _______________ 4. Every gene is made of two a. genotypes b. alleles c. cells 5. The organisms outward appearance, such as wrinkled seeds are referred to as the

a) phenotype b) genotype 6. The letters (ex. RR) that represent the traits are referred to as the a) phenotype b) genotype 7. An organism that has two different alleles, or letters, such as Rr is: a) homozygous b) heterozygous 8. 7. An organism that has two of the same alleles, or letters,

such as RR is: a) homozygous b) heterozygous 9. Which of the following sets would represent Mendels Parent (P) generation? a) RR x RR b) Rr x Rr c) RR x rr 10. When two different alleles occur together, such as Rr, the one that is expressed is a) dominant b) recessive

11. What is the diagram shown below called? What does this letter actually represent? Check for understanding 1. A one-eyed purple people eater is crossed with a

two eyed purple people eater. All of their offspring have two eyes. Which trait is dominant? 2. If you use the letter E for this gene. What is the genotype of the offspring if the parents were EE x ee EE = two eyes

3. If you crossed the offspring with each other? How many of the new offspring would you expect to have two eyes? Ee = two eyes ee = one eye Video Review: Extra Credit

Link if video isnt working: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UTgVpZYoHUQ

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • 輔仁大學英國語文學系 - fju.edu.tw

    輔仁大學英國語文學系 - fju.edu.tw

    輔大英文系 100學年度新生家長日
  • Modulasi Frekuensi Pertemuan 4 - Binus University

    Modulasi Frekuensi Pertemuan 4 - Binus University

    Frequency Modulation FM produces pairs of sidebands spaced from the carrier in multiples of the modulating frequency. The modulation index m of FM signal is the ratio of the frequency deviation fd to the modulating frequency, fm (m = fd...
  • Current Funding System

    Current Funding System

    Current Funding System Timeline New Funding Formula Began January 2007 for all PHAs Gains phased in over 2 years Losses phased in over 5 years Timeline (cont.) Conversion to Project-Based Accounting Began July 1, 2007 (based on fiscal year) Cost...
  • Ch. 1 European Renaissance and Reformation

    Ch. 1 European Renaissance and Reformation

    The Elizabethan Age William Shakespeare. The Renaissance spread to England in the mid 1500s. (named after Queen Elizabeth I) She did a lot to support English art and literature. The most famous writer of the time was . William Shakespeare....
  • PowerPoint 100 Food  a fact of life  Food

    PowerPoint 100 Food a fact of life Food

    We need a range of different types of food We need milk, cheese and yogurt. We need a range of different types of food We need meat, fish, eggs, beans and nuts. Food - a fact of life We need...
  • Plan 9  Worst movie ever made (by Ed

    Plan 9 Worst movie ever made (by Ed

    The compiler that produces Intel binaries is called 8c, 8l for the linker and its assembler is 8a, kc, kl, and ka for SPARC, … Inheritance: one can nest structures and pass the parent structure to a function expecting the...
  • Stream Visual Assessment Protocol Version 2 (SVAP2)

    Stream Visual Assessment Protocol Version 2 (SVAP2)

    Look for native or naturalized plant species. Look for multiple layers of structure and diversity (i.e. herbaceous plants, shrubs, young & mature trees). Start at top of stream bank and assess natural vegetative community from representative location from each streambank....
  • Present Continuous Tense - İngilizce Dersi Yazılı ...

    Present Continuous Tense - İngilizce Dersi Yazılı ...

    see seeING agree agreeING Şimdiki zamanla birlikte kullanılan zaman zarfları; Now At present At the moment Right now For the time being NON-ACTION VERBS "-ING almayan fiiller" Verbs of possession "aitlik gösteren fiiller" possess, have, own, belong Verbs of feelings...