Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology - Boyertown Area School ...

Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology - Boyertown Area School ...

Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology LESSON 1: UNIFYING PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY Lesson Objectives State the four unifying principles of biology as defined by the College Board. Briefly explain how biological life on Earth evolves. Explain the purposes of free energy processes and

homeostasis in biological organisms. Describe the theories and dogma of biological information. Describe how living things interact and the levels of structural, biological, and ecological organization in biological systems. The Big Ideas Evolutionevolution drives the diversity and unity of life

Free Energybiological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis Informationliving systems store, retrieve, transmit, and respond to information essential to life processes Systemsbiological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties (9:09)

Evolution Evolutionevolution drives the diversity and unity of life What is diversity? Diversity Do all species on Earth live in the same type of habitat Do we all reproduce alike Do we are physically resemble one another Do we all have the exact same resource needs

Evolution drives the diversity of life which insures survival through variations that develop through genetic mutations that are transferred between or within populations of species by means of non-random mating, and immigration and emigration of individuals within and from populations. Evolutioncontinued What is the unity of life? What do we mean by unity of life? universal usage of DNA to store genetic information

the ribosome technique of protein synthesis proteins serve as enzymes and catalysts the same 20 amino acids are always used a universal genetic code DNA triplets coding for same amino acid the use of proteins and lipids to make membranes the use of the ATP-ADP cycle for chemical energy Free Energy Free Energybiological systems utilize free energy

and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis Homeostasis Information Informationliving systems store, retrieve, transmit, and respond to information essential to life processes Systems

Systemsbiological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties Describe how living things interact and the levels of structural, biological, and ecological organization in biological systems. Lesson Summary Four underlying principles form the basis of biology. They are evolution, free energy, information, and systems. The great diversity of life on Earth today is the result of 4 billion years of evolution. During that time, living things

evolved from simple, single-celled organisms to complex, multicellular life forms. Biological systems utilize free energy & molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis. Living systems store, retrieve, transmit & respond to information essential to life processes. Many living things interact with one another in some way. The interactions are often necessary for their survival.

LESSON 2: DISCOVERY OF CELLS AND MICROSCOPES Lesson Objectives o State the cell theory, and list the discoveries that led to it. o

Be able to identify the parts of a compound light microscope. o Explain the differences between a SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) and a TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope).

Abiogenesis or Biogenesis? Recipe for Bees 1.Kill a bull during the first thaw of winter 2.Build a shed. 3.Place the dead bull on branches and

Aristotle300 B.C. (2300 years ago) Living things follow a set of natural rules different from nonliving things Special vital forces (magical forces in the air) brought living things into being from nonliving things A hypothesis known as : spontaneous generation also called abiogenesis

About 350 years ago Challenges began to arise to the beliefs of Aristotle How did they challenge these ideas Through experiments and observations to answer the questions about life.. Do living things come from nonliving things????? OBSERVATIONS

Discovery of Cells Cell: smallest unit that can carry out the processes of life; including transport of materials, obtaining and using energy, waste disposal, replication, and responding to their environment. If you look at living organisms under a microscope you will see they are made up of cells; which are the basic unit of all living things

Anton von Leeuwenhoek mid 1600s Dutch businessman credited for creating 1st microscope; Magnification 200X Opened up new world Changed ideas about disease & sterilization for the next 200 years!!

ANIMALCULES Robert Hooke late 1600s (1663) English physicist; used one of 1st light microscopes. Coined the term cell after observing cork cells

EXPERIMENTS Francesco Redi Italian Physician 1668 Studied maggots Did not believe they came from decaying meat Set up an experiment

Figure 1-8 Redis Experiment on Spontaneous Generation Redis Experiment Section 1-2 OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat. HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots.

PROCEDURE Uncovered jars Controlled Variables: jars, type of meat, location, temperature, time Covered jars

Several days pass Manipulated Variables: gauze covering that keeps flies away from meat Responding Variable: whether maggots Maggots appear

No maggots appear appear CONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur. Success??? Redi thought so, but No air could get into the experimental jars There was no vital force People still believed in spontaneous

generation or abiogenesis Back to the drawing board Redis Second Experiment Control Group Experimental Group Conclusion

Maggots do not come from dead meat. Hypothesis has been supported! Does this disprove abiogenesis? Only for flies! The Debate Continued. Was Redi right, Aristotles ideas had survived for a millennia, how could they

be WRONG!!!! Lets follow the history of the scientific investigation and further observations that finally solved the riddle John Needham (British Biologist & Roman Catholic priest Mid-1700s Believed in abiogenesis for microscopic organisms

Needhams Experiment Broth in flask boiled to sterilize it Killing microorganisms, then sealed Microorganisms found growing in flask!!!! Lazzaro Spallanzani (Italian Scholar) 1768 Did not believe in spontaneous generation Read about Needhams work

Samples had not been heated enough Broth in two flasks boiled to sterilize Sealed one immediately after boiling Left other open Bacteria found growing only in open flask More Observations

1839 Schleiden and Schwann made an important discovery about living things Beliefs are about to change.. Matthias Schleiden 1839

German botanist All plants are made of cells. Theodor Schwann 1839 All animals are made of cells German scientist

Further concluded all plants and animals are made of cells More Observations 1839 BUT.Schleiden and Schwann did not understand where cells came from. Was the belief of the time dating back to the

time of Aristotle (300 B.C.) right? Did cells come from nonliving matter (Abiogenesis). Rudolf virchow 1855 Where a cell exists, there must have been A preexisting cell German physician

Still one more experiment before true understanding Does Abiogenesis happen? A contest was devised by the French Academy of Sciences with a cash award for the person who could disprove abiogenesis.

Louis Pasteur French Scientist Mid- 1800s Knew he needed to let air in, but not dust Was inspired by Swan Necked Flask

Pour broth into flask Heat neck & shape Boil broth Wait! Pasteurs Experiment Conclusion--1859 Since no microorganisms could get into the broth (they were trapped in the curve

of the swan neck), none grew. Pasteur broke the neck off a year later, allowed it to be exposed to air & microorganisms began to quickly grow. Biogenesis Living things do NOT come from non-living things. Spontaneous generation does NOT

occur, even with very small organisms. Living things only come from other living things! Cell Theory widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things All organisms are made up of one or more cells.

All the life functions of an organism occur within cells. All cells come from preexisting cells. Lets Step Back and Talk About Microscopes Magnifying glasses had been in use since the 1300s Magnification power of early

microscopes was limited by glass quality used in the lenses and the amount of light reflected off the object. Today we are not limited by light and mirrors when viewing specimen Scanning Electron Microscope Runs a pencil-like beam of electrons back and forth

across the surface of a specimen Creating 3-D Images Transmission Electron Microscope Shines a beam of electrons through a thin specimen. Creating detailed flat one dimensional

images Unfortunately, in class we only have compound light microscopes Parts of the microscope review Lesson Summary Discoveries about cells using the microscope and experimental observations led to the

development of the cell theory. This theory states: All organisms are made of one or more cells All the life functions of organisms occur within cells All cells come from already existing cells. Electron microscopes can produce highly magnified one dimensional and 3-D image of specimens.

LESSON 3: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE Lesson Objectives o Identify the goal of science. o

Describe how scientists study the natural world; using the scientific method. o Explain how and why scientists do experiments. o Describe types of scientific investigations.

o Explain what a scientific theory is. The Goal of Science Science is a distinctive way of gaining knowledge about the natural world that starts with a question and then tries to answer the question with evidence and logic. The goal of science is to understand the natural world. To

achieve this goal, scientists make certain assumptions. They assume that: Nature can be understood through systematic study. Scientific ideas are open to revision. Sound scientific ideas withstand the test of time. Science cannot provide answers to all questions. Nature Can Be Understood Though scientific laws. Scientific laws are statements

that describe what always happens under certain conditions in nature. LAW OF GRAVITY Scientific Ideas Can Change Knowledge is a process New observations are made Ideas are retested Testing leads to challenges and possible revisions of

ideas Thus scientists gradually build an increasingly accurate and detailed understanding of the natural world. Scientific Knowledge Can Withstand the Test of Time Scientific knowledge that have been tested repeatedly and found to be true are considered scientific theory. By true we mean they are supported by a great deal of scientific evidence.

Scientific theories are distinguished from philosophical theories in that each of their theorems are statements about observable data, whereas a philosophical theory includes theorems which are ideas or principles. Biological Scientific Laws and Theories you should know: Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Cell Theory Law of Biogenesis Laws of Thermodynamics

Science Cannot Answer All Questions Scientific knowledge is based on evidence and logic, derived from questioning and the testing of things observed. An observation is anything that is detected either through human senses or with instruments and measuring devices that extend human senses. Things that cannot be observed or measured by current meanssuch as supernatural beings or eventsare outside the bounds of science. Consider these two questions about life on Earth:

Did life on Earth evolve over time? Was life on Earth created through another method? The first question can be answered by science on the basis of scientific evidence and logic. The second question could be a matter of belief. Therefore, it is outside the realm of science. The Scientific Method Basic method for gaining scientific knowledge, used by all areas of science and is conducted through scientific

investigations. Lets say you communicate your results, numerous others retest your hypothesis and it is consistently supported. What could it become? Experiments An experiment is a special type of scientific investigation that is performed under controlled conditions, usually in a laboratory. Variables:

An experiment generally tests how one variable is affected by another. The affected variable is called the dependent variable. The variable that affects the dependent variable is called the independent variable. Sample size and repetition: Sample is the individuals or events that are studied. Size is usually much smaller than all such individuals or events that exist in the world. The larger the sample is, the more likely the results are generally true.

Repetition, the more times that an experiment is repeated and the same results obtained, the more likely the results are valid. Types of Data Collected During Experiments Observations and Inferences When you observe, you use one or more of your senses to perceive objects and events. You might see movement

of a water flea, hear the cry of an osprey, or touch the skin of a salamander. It is critical for observers to describe exactly what they perceive and not what they think is happening (inference). Lesson Summary The goal of science is to understand the natural world through systematic study. Scientific knowledge is based on evidence and logic. Scientists gain knowledge through scientific investigations. A

scientific investigation is a plan for asking questions and testing possible answers. Scientists use experiments to test hypotheses under controlled conditions. Experiments are often done in a lab. Other types of scientific investigations include natural studies and modeling. They can be used when experiments are difficult to do. Scientific theories are broad explanations that are widely accepted as true. This is because they are supported by a great deal of evidence.

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