Brown vs. The Board of Education

Brown vs. The Board of Education

Return to ACA Return to Portfolio TOC (link will only work if in view show mode Brown vs. The Board of Education Dave Baniszewski Mike Bryant

Helen Reyes David Rutledge EDUC 845 Liberty University The escalation of segregation in the South began immediately after the Civil War. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth

Amendments, along with the two Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1875 and the various Enforcements Acts of the early 1870s, curtailed the ability of southern whites to formally deprive blacks of their civil rights. Rutherford B. Hayes

The decade of the 1880s was characterized by mob lynchings and a vicious system of convict prison farms and chain gains In 1890 Louisiana passes the infamous Jim Crow law mandating separate but equal accommodations for blacks and whites

By 1910, every state of the former Confederacy had adopted laws that segregated all aspects of life wherein blacks and whites might socially mingle or come into contact. Impoverished and often illiterate southern blacks were in a weak position in the 1890s

for confronting the racist culture of Jim Crow. The Land mark Supreme Court's in 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson By 1905, the issue of how to most effectively deal with Jim Crow came to a head in the debate between the followers of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois.

In the 1930s, the NAACP, began to focus more of its attention on a campaign to challenge segregation W.E.B. Du Bois Walter White

Segregation in Education After the Civil War, the southern states scrambled to recover and keep the public school system alive. Ultimately this effort created a dual educational system based on race. Schools were anything but equal

Case Name: Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896) Plaintiffs: Homer Plessy Defendants: John H. Ferguson, judge of the criminal District Court for the parish of Orleans Location: New Orleans, Louisiana Year : Argued: April 13, 1896 Decided: May 18, 1896

Case Name: Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County , 175 U.S. 528 (1899) Plaintiffs: Cumming, Harper and Ladeveze Defendants: The Board of Education of Richmond County and Charles S. Bohler, tax collector. Location: Richmond County Georgia

Year: Argued: October 30, 1899 Decided: December 18, 1899 Case Name: Gong Lum v. Rice, 275 U.S. 78 (1927) Plaintiffs: Gong Lum and Martha Lum Defendants: Superintendent of Education of the State of Mississippi Location: Mississippi Year: Argued: October 12, 1927 Decided: November 21, 1927 196

Case Name: State of Missouri ex rel . Gaines v. Canada, 305 U.S. 337 (1938) Plaintiffs: Lloyd Gaines Defendants: CANADA, REGISTRAR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI Location: Missouri Year: Argued: November 9, 1938 Decided: December 12, 1938

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Argued: Dec. 8, 1952 Reargued: Dec. 7, 1953 Decided: May 17, 1954 Key Players

Thurgood Marshall Rev. Oliver Brown Linda Brown Chief Justice Earl Warren Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Several Cases Were Combined into One

Delaware Belton v Gebhart Kansas Brown v Board of Education South Carolina Briggs v Elliot Virginia Davis v County School Board of Prince Edward County Washington, DC Bolling v Melvin Sharpe

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas The Issue Schools approached equality in terms of buildings, curricula,

qualifications, and teacher salaries. Nevertheless, despite equality of objective factors, intangible issues foster and maintain inequality. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas This case was not simply about children and education.

This new law had far reaching social and ideological implications that continue to be felt throughout the nation and the world. The struggle for Human Rights throughout the world can trace its roots back to this case. Reinforced the supremacy of the power of the people in protecting natural rights from arbitrary limitations imposed by governments. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas The case did not abolish segregation in

other public areas, such as restaurants and restrooms, nor did it place a time frame for implementation of the law. Other pioneers would take up the torch of freedom and carry on the challenge. 1960s Greensboro Four

Freedom Riders Segregation Forever Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Bloody Sunday NOW & Poll Tax Laws

Justice & Injustice Court Cases & Legislation March Griggs v. Duke Power Company Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education Palmer v. Thompson ERA Title IX Education Amendments

Court Cases San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez State Constitutional Challenges Public School Race Riots Education for All Handicapped Children Act Court Cases Affirmative Action

Brown III Reagan Administration Emergency School Aid Act

Los Angeles Segregation Desegregation Segregation Again Race & Gender 1988 Desegregations High Water Mark

Board of Education v. Dowell 1991 The Slide Begins Reality vs. Assumptions Survey Says.. Dont Do as I Do, Do As I Say Segregated? Not in My

Neighborhood! Where Segregation & Integration Occur School Segregation: Current Trends Regular Public School Enrollments by Race/Ethnicity and Region, 2000 - 2001 % Region Total Enrollment

% White % Black La tin o % Asian Pacific

% Indian Alaskan South 14,361,152 53.6 27.4

16.5 2.1 0.4 Border 3,478,610

71.0 20.6 3.3 1.9 3.3

Northeast 8,227,746 67.4 15.5 12.4

4.4 0.3 Midwest 9,837,237 76.3

14.4 6.0 2.3 0.9 West

10,785,326 50.5 6.6 33.0 7.8

2.1 Alaska 133,356 61.5 4.6

3.4 5.5 25.0 Hawaii 184,360

20.4 2.3 4.5 72.3 0.4

Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools 46,938 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 100.0 47,054,725 61.2 17.1

16.3 4.1 1.3 U.S. Total Reprinted with permission from the Civil Rights Project, Harvard University

The Affect of Shifting Demographics School Segregation: Current Trends Racial Composition of Schools Attended by the Average Student of Each Race, 2001 - 2001 Signs of Hope? Grutter v. Bollinger

Thirty Years and Counting. Segregation is evil because it scars the soul of both the segregated and the segregator. It gives the segregated a false sense of inferiority and it gives the segregator a false sense of superiority. It does something to the soul.this is why segregation is utterly evil and utterly un-Christian. It substitutes an "I/It" relationship for the "I/Thou" relationship. Martin Luther King Jr.

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