Return to ACA Return to Portfolio TOC (link will only work if in view show mode Brown vs. The Board of Education Dave Baniszewski Mike Bryant
Helen Reyes David Rutledge EDUC 845 Liberty University The escalation of segregation in the South began immediately after the Civil War. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth
Amendments, along with the two Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1875 and the various Enforcements Acts of the early 1870s, curtailed the ability of southern whites to formally deprive blacks of their civil rights. Rutherford B. Hayes
The decade of the 1880s was characterized by mob lynchings and a vicious system of convict prison farms and chain gains In 1890 Louisiana passes the infamous Jim Crow law mandating separate but equal accommodations for blacks and whites
By 1910, every state of the former Confederacy had adopted laws that segregated all aspects of life wherein blacks and whites might socially mingle or come into contact. Impoverished and often illiterate southern blacks were in a weak position in the 1890s
for confronting the racist culture of Jim Crow. The Land mark Supreme Court's in 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson By 1905, the issue of how to most effectively deal with Jim Crow came to a head in the debate between the followers of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois.
In the 1930s, the NAACP, began to focus more of its attention on a campaign to challenge segregation W.E.B. Du Bois Walter White
Segregation in Education After the Civil War, the southern states scrambled to recover and keep the public school system alive. Ultimately this effort created a dual educational system based on race. Schools were anything but equal
Case Name: Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896) Plaintiffs: Homer Plessy Defendants: John H. Ferguson, judge of the criminal District Court for the parish of Orleans Location: New Orleans, Louisiana Year : Argued: April 13, 1896 Decided: May 18, 1896
Case Name: Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County , 175 U.S. 528 (1899) Plaintiffs: Cumming, Harper and Ladeveze Defendants: The Board of Education of Richmond County and Charles S. Bohler, tax collector. Location: Richmond County Georgia
Year: Argued: October 30, 1899 Decided: December 18, 1899 Case Name: Gong Lum v. Rice, 275 U.S. 78 (1927) Plaintiffs: Gong Lum and Martha Lum Defendants: Superintendent of Education of the State of Mississippi Location: Mississippi Year: Argued: October 12, 1927 Decided: November 21, 1927 196
Case Name: State of Missouri ex rel . Gaines v. Canada, 305 U.S. 337 (1938) Plaintiffs: Lloyd Gaines Defendants: CANADA, REGISTRAR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI Location: Missouri Year: Argued: November 9, 1938 Decided: December 12, 1938
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Argued: Dec. 8, 1952 Reargued: Dec. 7, 1953 Decided: May 17, 1954 Key Players
Thurgood Marshall Rev. Oliver Brown Linda Brown Chief Justice Earl Warren Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Several Cases Were Combined into One
Delaware Belton v Gebhart Kansas Brown v Board of Education South Carolina Briggs v Elliot Virginia Davis v County School Board of Prince Edward County Washington, DC Bolling v Melvin Sharpe
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas The Issue Schools approached equality in terms of buildings, curricula,
qualifications, and teacher salaries. Nevertheless, despite equality of objective factors, intangible issues foster and maintain inequality. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas This case was not simply about children and education.
This new law had far reaching social and ideological implications that continue to be felt throughout the nation and the world. The struggle for Human Rights throughout the world can trace its roots back to this case. Reinforced the supremacy of the power of the people in protecting natural rights from arbitrary limitations imposed by governments. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas The case did not abolish segregation in
other public areas, such as restaurants and restrooms, nor did it place a time frame for implementation of the law. Other pioneers would take up the torch of freedom and carry on the challenge. 1960s Greensboro Four
Freedom Riders Segregation Forever Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Bloody Sunday NOW & Poll Tax Laws
Justice & Injustice Court Cases & Legislation March Griggs v. Duke Power Company Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education Palmer v. Thompson ERA Title IX Education Amendments
Court Cases San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez State Constitutional Challenges Public School Race Riots Education for All Handicapped Children Act Court Cases Affirmative Action
Brown III Reagan Administration Emergency School Aid Act
Los Angeles Segregation Desegregation Segregation Again Race & Gender 1988 Desegregations High Water Mark
Board of Education v. Dowell 1991 The Slide Begins Reality vs. Assumptions Survey Says.. Dont Do as I Do, Do As I Say Segregated? Not in My
Neighborhood! Where Segregation & Integration Occur School Segregation: Current Trends Regular Public School Enrollments by Race/Ethnicity and Region, 2000 - 2001 % Region Total Enrollment
% White % Black La tin o % Asian Pacific
% Indian Alaskan South 14,361,152 53.6 27.4
16.5 2.1 0.4 Border 3,478,610
71.0 20.6 3.3 1.9 3.3
Northeast 8,227,746 67.4 15.5 12.4
4.4 0.3 Midwest 9,837,237 76.3
14.4 6.0 2.3 0.9 West
10,785,326 50.5 6.6 33.0 7.8
2.1 Alaska 133,356 61.5 4.6
3.4 5.5 25.0 Hawaii 184,360
20.4 2.3 4.5 72.3 0.4
Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools 46,938 0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 100.0 47,054,725 61.2 17.1
16.3 4.1 1.3 U.S. Total Reprinted with permission from the Civil Rights Project, Harvard University
The Affect of Shifting Demographics School Segregation: Current Trends Racial Composition of Schools Attended by the Average Student of Each Race, 2001 - 2001 Signs of Hope? Grutter v. Bollinger
Thirty Years and Counting. Segregation is evil because it scars the soul of both the segregated and the segregator. It gives the segregated a false sense of inferiority and it gives the segregator a false sense of superiority. It does something to the soul.this is why segregation is utterly evil and utterly un-Christian. It substitutes an "I/It" relationship for the "I/Thou" relationship. Martin Luther King Jr.
ADPI selection using T 50. / L was developed in the '60s where L is the distance to the nearest wall or halfway to the nearest air outlet.. See Fundamentals Chapter 20 table 2 for more details on definition of...
* CPPB established a year ago. Chaired by DF. Representation from Chief Exec, Medical and Nursing Directors, Patient Groups, BMA SGPC, CCLG * 2 portal already No more than 2 others Common look and feel to portals * Top 20...
The Huygens-Fresnel principle. Point-sources of radiation emit spherical wave-fronts. Huygens: Every point on a spherical wave-front (surface of constant phase) acts as a point-source for secondary spherical waves.
Jem (Jeremy Atticus Finch) Mrs Fischer. Walter Cunningham - might use knothole as hidingplace. Mr Avery - whittles away a piece of stove wood until it is a toothpick. Miss Stephanie Crawford's sweetheart - he carves wood but lives in...
European Institute of Public Administration - EIPA Barcelona Award nominees and Recipients of Best Practice Certificates Theme I: Performance Improvement in Public Service Delivery Best Practice Certificate Holder: Generalitat de Catalunya: SIGPAC: Improving the Effectiveness of Agricultural and ...
How to deal with breaks in shopping session? How to deal with peak loads? Are they really secure? (Perception vs. reality) Current authentication methods Passwords Cookies Database logins Certs and PKI infrastructure Single sign on system products Keeping track of...
The role of the Southern Hemisphere semiannual oscillation (SAO) as a precursor to the development of different types of El Niño events. Meehl, G.A., H. van Loon, and Julie M. Arblaster, 2017: The role of the Southern Hemisphere semiannual oscillation...
Surreal Sculpture. Students will use the combined pinch construction method to create a surreal sculpture. What is surrealism? A20th-century avant-garde movement in art and literature that sought to release the creative potential of the unconscious mind, for example by the...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!