Bonds - ScienceGeek.net

Bonds - ScienceGeek.net

Ionic Bonding CA Standards Students Students know know atoms atoms combine combine to to form form molecules molecules by by sharing sharing electrons electrons to to form form covalent

covalent or or metallic metallic bonds bonds or or by by exchanging exchanging electrons electrons to to form form ionic ionic bonds. bonds. Students Students know know salt salt crystals,

crystals, such such as as NaCl, NaCl, are are repeating repeating patterns patterns of of positive positive and and negative negative ions ions held held together together by by electrostatic

electrostatic attraction. attraction. Bonds Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function Ionic bonds transfer of as a unit. electrons Covalent bonds sharing of electrons The Octet Rule Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds form so that each atom, by gaining or losing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied

energy level. Metals lose electrons to form positivelycharged cations Nonmetals gains electrons to form negatively-charged anions Ionic Bonding: The Formation of Sodium Chloride Sodium has 1 valence electron Chlorine has 7 valence electrons An electron transferred gives each an octet Na: 1s22s22p63s1 Cl: 1s22s22p63s23p5 Ionic Bonding: The Formation of Sodium Chloride This transfer forms ions, each

with an octet: Na+ 1s22s22p6 Cl- 1s22s22p63s23p6 Ionic Bonding: The Formation of Sodium Chloride The resulting ions come together due to electrostatic attraction (opposites attract): Na+ Cl- The net charge on the

compound must equal zero Examples of Ionic compounds Mg2+Cl-2 Na+2O2- Al3+2S2-3 Magnesium chloride: Magnesium loses two electrons and each chlorine gains one electron Sodium oxide: Each sodium loses one electron and the oxygen gains two electrons Aluminum sulfide: Each aluminum loses two electrons (six total) and each sulfur

gains two electrons (six total) Metal Monatomi c Cations Lithium Li+ Sodium Na+ Potassium K+ Magnesium Mg2+ Ion name Calcium

Barium Aluminum Lithium Sodium Potassium Magnesiu m Calcium Barium Aluminum Ca2+ Ba2+ Al3+ Nonmetal Monatomic

Anions Fluorine FChlorine ClBromine BrIodine IOxygen O2Sulfur S2Nitrogen N3Phosphorus P3- Ion Name Fluoride Chloride Bromide Iodide Oxide Sulfide Nitride Phosphide

Sodium Chloride Crystal Lattice Ionic compounds form solid crystals at ordinary temperatures. Ionic compounds organize in a characteristic crystal lattice of alternating positive and negative ions. All salts are ionic compounds and form crystals. Properties of Ionic Compounds Structure: Melting

point: Boiling Point: Electrical Conductivi ty: Solubility in water: Crystalline solids Generally high Generally high Excellent conductors, molten and aqueous Generally soluble

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