Biochemistry - UT Web

Biochemistry - UT Web

Water Essential Questions: Whats so great about water? SC.912.L.18.12: Discuss the special properties of water that contribute to Earth's suitability as an environment for life: cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperature, expansion upon freezing, and versatility as a solvent. Drs. Ann Williams & Heather Masonjones, Associate Professors of Biology, UT Sawyer Masonjones University of Florida undergraduate Additional Standards SC.912.P.8.4 Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by describing the structure of atoms in terms of

protons, neutrons and electrons, and differentiate among these particles in terms of their mass, electrical charges and locations within the atom. SC.912.P.8.5 Relate properties of atoms and their position in the periodic table to the arrangement of their electrons. SC.912.P.8.8 Characterize types of chemical reactions, for example: redox, acid-base, synthesis, and single and double replacement reactions. SC.912.P.8.11 Relate acidity and basicity to hydronium and hydroxyl ion concentration and pH. SC.912.N.3.5 Describe the function of models in science, and identify the wide range of models used in science.

UT Bio Majors Head Back to High School to Teach Water Kit + Molecular Twister Objectives *Description of the structure of water molecules

*Description of intra and inter molecular bonds of water and other molecules *Discussion of the 4 unique properties of water making it crucial for life on earth *Discussion and review of chemical bonding & electronegativity Modeling & Questioning Student Materials/Equipment *3D Molecular Designs Water Kit (each kit includes 12 water molecules (24 red pieces & 24 white pieces), 1 sodium (smaller blue atom), 1 chloride (larger green

atom), 1 ethane, and 1 hydroxyl group (an oxygen and hydrogen molecule - OH) *NaCl Lattice Kit *Molecular Twister Kit *Activity sheet Water, Water Everywhere But How Does it Sustain Life? -Instructor version includes answers to guided questions and addition resources and tips -Student version can be given directly out the to the students as an activity

The guided activity has been separated into 5 distinct sections to be used together or separately in a continuous activity or as separate activities when topics are introduced. Section 6 are challenge questions based on an environmental or health premise that can be used in conjunction with the presented activity as the teacher sees fit for their individual classroom. Part 1 Part 2 A) B) C) Part 3 A)

B) Part 4 A) B) C) D) Part 5 Structure of Water 3D Water Kit Electronegativity & Bonding Electronegativity Molecular Twister Kit Bonding Molecular Twister Kit Bonds within the water molecule 3D Water Kit

Polarity of Water 3D Water Kit Bonds between water molecules Bonds between water molecules & other molecules including (a) ethane & ethanol (b) NaCl Unique Properties of Water 3D Water Kit Cohesion & Adhesion High Specific Heat Capacity Expansion Upon Freezing Versatility as a Solvent Role of pH Changes Molecular Twister Kit Introduction Water

Why is water so important to studying biology? Life began in water Living cells = 70-95% water of earth 3 physical states : ice, liquid, vapor Part 1: Structure of Water Assemble the 3D water molecules! The water molecule Made up of 2 H atoms joined to one O by a single covalent bond

Water Kit Water Activity Part 1: Activity Assemble a water molecule / Within your Group pend some time exploring the water kits by creating the water molecules following Activity on Page 2-3 (Student version)

Also, use the flip cards to further explore how the water kit can be used in your classroom Part 2: Electronegativity & Bonding Electronegativity= Nonpolar covalent bond = equally shared electrons -molecules of one element -examples: Polar covalent bond unequally shared electrons ENTable.gif

Tug of war With These Guys?? Who will win? Connection to sharing versus stealing electrons Covalent vs. Ionic bonds Electronegativitys Connection to Water! Fig. 2.13 Water Activity Part 2:

Electronegativity Molecular Twister Kit Part 2B) Lets Review Atoms & Bonds Atoms Elements Compounds

What is an Atom? Nucleus (a) (b) Cloud of negative charge (2 electrons) 2 Protons

2 Neutrons 2 Electrons Figure 2.5 - Helium Atoms make up elements (92) What is an element?

Elements make up Compounds in a fixed ratio What is a compound? NaCl Atoms combine by chemical bonding to form molecules Atoms interact by chemical bonding! Types of bonds Strong - Covalent sharing electrons

Weak - Ionic steals electron & then bond forms due to charges Hydrogen unequal sharing of electrons & then bond forms due to charges Covalent bonds can form between atoms of the same element or atoms of different elements. Compounds= H2O CH4

Fig. 2.12c Weak chemical bonds Within a cell, weak, brief bonds between molecules are important to a variety of processes. hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, Ionic bonding= -ion= charged -anion= -cation= + Figure 2.15

Opposites attract Difference in electronegativity determine bond Fig. 2.14 Na+ Cl Hydrogen bonds = 2 electronegative atoms and hydrogen. Weak nitrogen or oxygen.

Results because hydrogen ion becomes electropositive Example: water Example: DNA Fig. 2.16 Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: forms when 2 atoms share electrons Water Activity Parts 2B

Review Bonding -Molecular Twister Kit Water Activity Parts 2C Bonds within Water -Water Kit Lets do the activity on Page 6 (Student Version) Part 3) Polarity of water molecules Water is a polar molecule

Polar: unequal sharing of electrons O pulls electron much more strongly than H Makes O slightly (-), H slightly (+) Opposite ends of molecule to have opposite charges Makes water sticky Hydrogen Bonds Being polar, water molecules have a weak attraction to each other and form hydrogen bonds Hydrogen bond: Chemical bond between 2 molecules formed by the attraction of a slightly (+) H atom to a slightly (-) atom Im responsible

for most of waters unique properties! If water wasnt polar I wouldnt occur! Polarity of water molecules and hydrogen bonding Water is a polar molecule Wide V shaped

Shared electrons, not equally Hydrogen bonding Fig. 3.2 Opposite charges by H of one atom to O of another Maximum of 4 hydrogen bond Water Activity Parts 3A: Bonds Between Water

Molecules -Water Kit Lets do the activity on Page 810 (Student Version) Water Activity Parts 3B: Bonds Between Water & Other Molecules -Water Kit Show Ethane & Ethanol Show NaCl on Page 10-13 (Student Version)

White board review Which of the following makes up a water molecule? 1. 1 atom of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen 2. 1 atom of hydrogen and 2 atoms of oxygen 3. 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of

oxygen 4. 2 atoms of hydrogen and 2 atoms of oxygen Part 4) Unique Properties of Water Over 70% of earths surface is covered by water! Waters unique properties make life on Earth possible A) Cohesion & Adhesion Surface tension, capillary action B) High Specific Heat Capacity

Ability to moderate temperature C) Solid/Expansion upon freezing Ice floats D) Versatility as a solvent Dissolves many solutes A) Cohesion Water has many unusual properties b/c of its polar nature and ability

to hydrogen bond Cohesion: the tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together Water has strong cohesion Creates surface tension Ex. water bead Adhesion Adhesion: molecules are

attracted to other molecules Together with cohesion creates capillary action Ex. Meniscus Cohesion - Organisms depend on the cohesion of water molecules

Cohesion= Adhesion = Hydrogen bonds Cohesion important for water transport in plants Fig. 3.3 Transpiration ohesion and Adhesion Together Cohesion and adhesion help move water up from the

roots of a plant. Cohesion H2O molecules sticking to each other forming a rope that is pulled out as water vapor exhaled through the leaves. Adhesion Water molecules stick to the walls of the xylem on the inside of the plant Hydrogen Bonding!

Hydrogen bonds causing cohesion and adhesion! Surface tension= Water greater than most Air/water interface Example: Glass of water

Animals walking on water Fig. 3.4 Water Activity Parts 4A: Properties of Water Cohesion & Adhesion Capillary Action Walk on Water -Water Kit Perform both activities on Page 14 (Student Version)

Perform activity on Page 16 (Student Version) B) Temperature Moderation High Specific Heat Capacity Water can absorb lots of thermal energy without a large increase in its own temperature Due to hydrogen bonding Temperature is a measure of kinetic movement of molecules, sticky hydrogen bonds resist movement and therefore temperature increase. Fig. 3-5

What do you notice and High Specific Temperature Moderation here? Heat Burbank San Bernardino 100 90 Riverside 96 Los Angeles

Santa Ana (Airport) 75 Palm Springs 84 70s (F) 106 80s Pacific Ocean Santa Barbara 73 90s

100s San Diego 72 40 miles How does water stabilize temperature Specific heat = amnt of heat needed for 1g of substance to change its temp by 1C. 1 cal/g/oC. (unusually high) Water resists changes in temperature because of hydrogen bonding absorbed = break hydrogen bonds

released = hydrogen bonds form Disrupt bonds not move molecules, so can resist temp changes. Impact on environment Keep temperature range suitable for life Coastal have milder climates Marine environment stable. Impact on organisms (resist changes in internal temp). Phases of Water Liquid: at room temperature

Solid: 0C Gas: 100 C Water Activity Parts 4B: Properties of Water High Specific Heat Capacity Evaporation & Condensation -Water Kit Perform activity on Page 19 (Student Version)

C) Less Dense as a Solid Biological Importance: Ice (solid) Ice expands upon freezing Hydrogen bonds become less flexible and stabilize. Less dense than liquid = floats Oceans and lakes dont freeze solid Insulates aquatic ecosystems during winter Allows life to survive winter

C) Water as an insulator Water is less dense as a solid than as a liquid. densest at 4oC 10% less dense when ice molecules are no longer moving Bonded to a maximum of 4 partners Fig. 3.6 This oddity has important consequences for life Why?

Prevents water from freezing solid. Forms on surface. Insulates water below Euphausid shrimp, beneath the antarctic ice - D) Universal Solvent - Water is an important solvent forming many solutions many solutions. This is because water is polar

Solvent: substance that dissolves other substances When water is the solvent, the solution is called an aqueous solution. + + + +

+ + + + + + What do you notice about the water molecules? Universal Solvent Very important property! Most important biological reactions take place in aqueous solutions. Digestion Saliva is a solution containing water, proteins and salts Circulation

Blood is a solution containing water, gases, proteins and many molecules necessary for life! Water Activity Parts 4D: Properties of Water Versatility as a Solvent -Water Kit & NaCl Lattice Kit Perform activity on Page 20 (Student Version)

White board review Which of the following does not contribute to transpiration (water moving up the xylem of a plant)? 1. Cohesion 2. Specific heat capacity 3. Capillary action 4. Adhesion With which property of water would you explain the

cooler summer temperatures along the coast and the higher inland temperatures? 1. 2. 3. 4. Cohesive behavior High specific heat capacity Expansion upon freezing Versatility as a solvent

White board review White board review The polarity of the water molecule is responsible for 1. Hydrogen bonding 2. Waters versatility as a solvent 3. Cohesion 4. The low density of ice 5. All of the above

6. None of the above Part 5) How does water relate to pH? Water.behavior in solution a hydrogen atom shared by two water molecules shifts. A hydrogen ion (H+) and a hydroxide ion (OH-). hydronium ion (H3O+). Dissociation = ionization of H2O

H2O <=> H+ + OH- Water & pH Extra electron Extra proton H+ H2O <=> H+ + OHequilibrium

H2O > H + OH Acids H2O > Bases

H2O + - H + OH HCl acidic solution HCl -> H+ + Cl- -

H + OH NH3 + H+ <=> NH4+ + + NaOH -> Na+ + OHOH- + H+ -> H2O Biological systems are sensitive to changes in pH Acid = increases H+ in solution

HCl -> H+ + Cl Or decreases OH- by formation of H2O Base = reduces the H+ concentration Some bases reduce H+ directly. NH3 + H+ <=> NH4+ Some bases reduce H+ indirectly NaOH -> Na+ + OHOH- + H+ -> H2O Values for pH decline as [H+] increases. Slight change in pH represents

large change in [H+]. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 3.10 Part 6: Challenge Questions 1. Environmentally Related 2. Health Related

Molecular Twister Molecular Twister Kit Part 2A: Electronegativity Part 2B: Bonding Part 5: pH Part 6: Challenge Questions Discussion of Kit Demonstration of Kit Introduction to Activities

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