BIO 201 Lab 1 Experiments 1, 2, 3 Professor Diane Hilker Overview I. Exp. 1: Introduction to the Microscope II. Exp. 2: Survey of Microbes III. Exp. 3: Collection of Microbes
I. Exp. 1: Intro. to the Microscope Purpose: To review the use & care of the compound light microscope Fig. 3.1 Textbook I. Exp. 1: Intro. to the Microscope Compound Binocular Light Microscope (2) Sources of Magnification: Eyepiece or Ocular (10x) Objectives (4): Scanning Power: 4 x Low Power: 10x High Power: 40x
Oil Immersion: 100x Parfocal: ability to go from one objective to another with minimal focusing I. Exp. 1: Intro. to the Microscope Total Magnification: TM TM=Magnification of Eyepiece X Magnification of Objective Eyepiece Magnificatio n Objective Magnificati
on TM Scanning 10X 4X 40X Low 10X 10X
100X High Dry 10X 40X 400X Oil Immersion 10X 100X
1000X I. Exp. 1: Intro. to the Microscope Resolution or Resolving Power (RP) Ability to distinguish detail clearly To be able to tell 2 points as separate points and not one point RP = Wavelength of Light = ------2 X Numerical Aperture 2NA I. Exp. 1: Intro. to the
Microscope Wavelength of light (nm) Red light = 700 nm Blue light = 400 nm RP
red = 700 nm = 350 nm 2(1) RP blue = 400 nm = 200 nm 2(1) Lower the resolution, better the clarity Blue filter provides the best resolution with a halogen light bulb Blue filter NOT needed with microscopes that have I. Exp. 1: Intro. to the Microscope
Numerical Aperture (NA): describes the cone of light that enters the lens so as to see fine detail. Two things make up NA: Angular Aperture: angle of light as it goes through the lenses & filters of the condenser & into the objective (Constant) Refractive Index: how light travels through a medium Refractive Index of Air = 1.0 Refractive Index of Oil = 1.5 I. Exp. 1: Intro. to the Microscope RP
I. Exp. 1: Introduction to the Microscope II. Exp. 2: Survey of Microbes III. Exp. 3: Collection of Microbes II. Exp. 2: Survey of Microbes Purpose: To become familiar with using a microscope & to view various microbes
Wet Mount: observing living cells Focus on edge of coverslip Scanning-dim light using diaphragm Move toward center of slide Observe under Low & High Powers Slides will dry out quickly II. Exp. 2: Survey of Microbes 4 Slides: Largest to smallest
microorganisms 1. Pond Water: algae-much variation II. Exp. 2: Survey of Microbes 2. Protozoa: single celled eukaryotic microbes that move by different methods that belong to the Protista kingdom. Pseudopods: false feet Amoeba Cilia Paramecium Flagella Euglena
II. Exp. 2: Survey of Microbes 3. Yeast: single celled eukaryotic microbes that belong to the Fungi kingdom Ovoid & irregular Budding: method of reproduction Brownian movement Smaller than protozoa Larger than bacteria II. Exp. 2: Survey of Microbes 4. Bacteria (Hay infusion ): single celled prokaryotic microbes that belong to the Eubacteria Domain. Must view under 400x Very small Motile & non-motile
Looks like specks of sand Hard to discern shape Smaller than yeast & protozoa Protozoa may be present in the sample Overview I. Exp. 1: Introduction to the Microscope
II. Exp. 2: Survey of Microbes III. Exp. 3: Collection of Microbes III. Exp. 3: Collection of Microbes Purpose: To collect and grow microbes from the environment for observation Procedure to be described by lab instructor
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