Bellwork 1/8 What do you know about the International Space Station? If you could ask someone living on the International Space Station some questions, what would you ask? Coming UpA Day: Today 1/8: Orbital Space Colonies & Probes, work time Thursday 1/10: Space Exploration Ethics, Worktime
Monday 1/14 (skinny day): Work time Tuesday 1/15: Final Exam period Coming UpB Day: Today 1/3: Space Environment, Introduce Final Project, The Martian Monday 1/7: Terrestrial Space Colonies & Equipment, Work time Wednesday 1/9: Orbital Space Colonies & Probes, work time
Friday 1/11: Space Exploration Ethics, Worktime Monday 1/14 (skinny day): Work time Thursday 1/17: Final Exam period So, how do we get to space in the first place? How do we get an object from Earth into space? Rockets! Rockets carry objects to a certain
height and then eject whatever is to be sent into space Often built in stages that fall off and parachute back to Earth Can carry shuttles, satellites, ect. What is a Rocket? A chamber enclosing a gas under pressure.
A balloon is a simple example of a rocket. Rubber walls compress the air inside. Air escapes from the small opening at one end and the balloon flies. How Do Rockets Work A rocket moves forward
when gases shooting out the back of the rocket push it in the opposite direction. The reaction force that propels a rocket forward is called thrust. The greater the thrust, the greater a rockets velocity.
Action and Reaction A rocket takes off only when it expels gas. Action: The rocket pushes the gas out of the engine. Reaction: The gas pushes up on the rocket.
The Action (Thrust) has to be greater than the weight of the rocket for the reaction (liftoff) to happen. Newtons 3rd Law
Types of Rockets NASA uses: Atlas V Delta II Soyuz Rocket (Russian rocket which is used to transport people/supplies to the ISS
NASAs Space Shuttle program ended in 2011 Challenger & Columbia explosions Budget cuts How fast does it need to go? Escape Velocity: The speed at which an object must travel to break free of a planets gravity
Earths escape velocity 40,000 Km/h 11.2 Km/s 25,000 mph
For objects that just need to orbit Earth, meeting the Escape Velocity enough How do we get into Deep Space? Gravity Assist Using a planet's motion to accelerate a satellite As a satellite heads toward a planet, it accelerates and steals momentum
from the moving planet https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ceD56b1LD8 Why use Gravity Assist? Saves on fuel, time, and expenses! Direction changes, speeding up, slowing down, stabilizing against minor collisions/gravitational effects of other
objects All of these things require fuel! Trajectories Planning the timing of a launch depends on many factors: Planetary alignment & speeds Destination Fly by vs. landing
Solar needs (will the sun be in the way of imaging? Do you need sunlight to get the image?) Spacecrafts payload & maximum velocity Example: Sending Curiosity to Mars Launched on Nov. 6th 2011; landed in Gale Crater on Aug. 6th 2012 This launch date minimized the duration of the trip
occurs roughly every 26 months A later (or earlier) launch could result in the spacecraft missing or overshooting Mars
So, what would it be like to actually live in space? Lets find out! Two types: Orbital colonySpace Stations (today) Planetary Colony (Tuesday)
What is a Space Station? a large artificial satellite used as a long-term base for manned operations in space Space Stations: First space station: Salyut 1 (1971)Russian U.S. launches Skylab in 1973
Several other Salyut & Skylab missions were launched after that Mir space station launched in 1986 International Space Station (ISS) First piece of the ISS launched in 1998 First crew arrived in 2000 Finished in 2011
Components of the ISS Over 70 major components Canadian Robotic arm (Canadarm) Space walks, repairs, experiment monitoring 6 laboratories 2 U.S (NASA) 1 European Space Agency 1 Japanese
2 Russian How does the ISS work? Pressurized modules Solar panels Heat produced from electronics Oxygen: Created from water
through electrolysis Deliveries from Earth Carbon Dioxide: Removed by scrubbers Water & Food Supply Water is delivered from Earth Recycle water from:
Breath Fuel processing Urine/Waste Food is dehydrated and delivered via spacecraft What is the ISS working on right n ow? Some of the experiments being done
Space medicine 3-D printing in space Cell culturing Plant growth
What is it like to live on the ISS? Suni Williams American Astronaut & US Navy Officer Record for longest space flight & most space walks by a woman Example Missions
Titan Mission: Cassini II Hydroponics Station Icarus: The Sun Sail
Metal Mars Red Outpost Project LUNA Work time tasks today Continue background
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