Beat the World History Public

Beat the World History Public

BEAT THE WORLD HISTORY PUBLIC 2018 Edition THERE ARE 53 POSSIBLE LONGANSWER QUESTIONS THE EXAM COULD ASK YOU EXAM BREAKDOWN Unit Knowledge (K) Application (A) Integration (I) Total I. WORLD WAR ONE (1914-1918) 8 mc 5 mc 5 dbq 0 mc

5 dbq 23% II. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES 10 mc 3 mc 10 dbq 0 mc 0 dbq 23% III. INTERNATIONAL TENSIONS IN THE 1930S AND WORLD WAR TWO (19391945) 10 mc

6 mc 0 dbq 0 mc 10 dbq 26% IV. THE COLD WAR 4 mc 0 mc 5 dbq 0 mc 5 dbq 14% V. REGIONAL DEVELOPEMENTS AFTER

WWII (MIDDLE EAST) 1 mc 0 mc 5 dbq 1 mc 0 dbq 7% VI. CHALLENGES OF THE MODERN ERA 1 mc 0 mc 5 dbq 1 mc

0 dbq 7% 34 mc 14 mc 30 dbq 2 mc 20 dbq 100% Total mc = Multiple Choice dbq = Document- Based question Question 51: 5 POINTS

Has to be an APPLICATION (a) question from Unit I. There are 12 possible questions in this section. 1.1.3. Analyze reasons for expansion of the major imperial powers at the turn of the 20th century. (a) 1. Gold: To gain raw materials to be sent back to Europe Examples: 2. National Glory: images of triumphant soldiers defeating weaker adversaries Germany: wanted to expand and gain an empire that would rival Britain and France. 3. God: desire to impose Christianity on other cultures

ASKED IN 2012, 2014, 2017 Russia: needed access to a warm water port. France: wished to increase its prestige and extend its military reach. Britain: wanted to keep the status quo The sun never sets on the British Empire. 1.1.4. Analyze the origins of World War I with reference to nationalism, economic rivalry (imperialism), arms race, and military alliances. (a) 1. Nationalism: created hostilities between peoples as some were considered superior to others. Countries often thought that war would help them prove their strength and worth. Ex: AlsaceLorraine for France and Germany (different reasons), ethnic tension in the Balkans (panSlavism). 2. Imperialism: was intense. Germany and Britain were engaged in a fierce economic struggle

(see above). Germanys annexation of Alsace-Lorraine in 1871 had helped her prosper until Germany was produce more steel than Britain. 3. Militarism: (a consequence of nationalism and imperialism) resulted in a naval race between Britain and Germany as Germany sought a navy the size of Britains. Britain had a policy of maintaining twice as many ships as 2 other countries together. Ex: in 1906 Britain launched a new type of battle shipthe Dreadnought. 4. Alliances: began in the 1870s with German Chancellor Bismarck. If one country went to war, all would be dragged in. By 1914 Triple-Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

Triple-Entente Russia, Britain, France ASKED IN 2013, 2015 1.1.5. Analyze the role of Germany in the formation of military alliances before World War I with reference to: Dual Alliance 1879, Triple Alliance 1882, Reinsurance Treaty 1887.(a) As Chancellor of Germany, Bismarck created a system of alliances with the goal of ISOLATING FRANCE. These alliances gave Europe the illusion of peace and stability in the late 19th century, but tensions continued to mount all the same. 1. The Double Alliance of 1879 between Germany and Austria-Hungary If Russia attacked one of these countries, the other would come to its aid.

2. The Triple Alliance of 1882 between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy If one was attacked, the others would come to its aid. 3. The Reinsurance Treaty of 1887 between Germany and Russia A neutrality treaty whereby each promised to not get involved if the other was at war with someone else (i.e., France). It ended in 1890 when Kaiser Wilhelm II refused to renew it. Britain had a policy of isolation. 1.1.7. Draw conclusions about the impact of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on the outbreak of World War I in terms of: Serbian nationalism, Austro-Hungarian /Serbian relations, German governments response, Russian mobilization. (a)

Austria-Hungarys annexation of Bosnia in 1908, infuriated Serbia and increased Serbian nationalism. Creation of Balkan League (1912) led by Serbia, concerned Austria-Hungary. Balkan War of 1913 led to increased concerns in Austria-Hungary about Serbian aspiration in the region. Serbia was loosely allied with Russia which made relations between Serbia and Austria-Hungary more volatile. Serbias desire to want to unite all Slavs caused concern. (panslavism)

The struggle for power and influence in the Balkans intensified deep divisions and hatred making it a powder keg ready to explode. Germany responded after the assassination of Franz by giving Austria-Hungary a blank cheque to deal with the Serbian issue/problem. This infuriated Russia who gave Serbia full support and mobilized her army preparing for the now inevitable war. 1.2.3. Explain how trench warfare contributed to a stalemate on the Western Front. (a) No Mans Land: Troops faced each other across stretches of land that were tremendously dangerous to cross, thus creating a stalemate.

Advancement was difficult because of shell holes, no cover for troops and leading to massive casualties. Barb wire impeded or inhibited troop movement. Shell holes often filled with water, making it difficult to advance. The very nature of trench warfare was defensive. The trenches remained virtually stationary in spite of the massive battles fought.

Machine guns would focus their fire at gaps in the barbed wire where troops would congregate. Because the trenches extended along the entire length of the western front, there was no opportunity to outflank the enemy. As a result only frontal attacks were possible. ASKED IN 2010 1.2.4. Examine the impact of each new military technology on the nature of war during World War I: machine guns, tanks, submarines, aircraft, and gas. (a) In general, the huge numbers of armaments produced from 1900 to 1918 prolonged the war and the death toll. Aircraft were mostly used for reconnaissance and dogfights broke out. Not very effective until the end of the war. German submarines (U-boats) sank many British ships. After sinking the Lusitania in 1915, Germany promised to only fire on Allied Navy ships to appease the Americans. Germany resumed unrestricted

submarine warfare in 1917, which brought the U.S.A. into WWI. By 1917 they had sunk millions of tones of ships. Very effective. Gas was first used at Ypres and inflicted horrible internal and external burns. The invention of gas masks and frequent wind changes made it an undesirable weapon. It frightened many more than it killed. Not very effective. The machine gun was extremely effective and deadly some could fire nearly one thousand bullets every minute! Tanks were introduced at the Somme in 1916 by the British. They were first big and clumsy and often got stuck in the mud but got more efficient after 1917. 1.2.5. Compare and contrast the nature of the war on the Eastern and Western Fronts. (a) Eastern Front: Western Front: Longer (1,600km) Baltic Sea in north to Black Sea in south. More mobile and unstable as a result. Impossible to establish permanent trenches. Troops widely dispersed so the enemy

(Germany) could break through more easily. When the line was breached, a primitive line of communications made things worse. Reinforcements had to be found for counter attack. Harsh winter made for unbearable conditions. Shorter (700km) Belgian coast in the north to Swiss border in the south Line of trenches stretched whole way with little movement for Allied and Central Powers. Mud, lice and vermin created horrific conditions in trenches. 1.2.7. Analyze how the American entry into World War I and the Russian withdrawal from World War I affected the Allied war effort and the wars outcome. (a) *The American entry helped prolong (and win) the war for the Allies, but the Russian withdrawal helped Germany.

Russia: Bolsheviks sought armistice with Germany in November 1917 to end war with Germany. Signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918. Ended the war on two fronts = Advantage Germany. Germany focused ALL its resources on the Western Front. USA: January 1917: Germany sent Zimmermann Telegram and recommenced unrestricted submarine warfare. The USA declared war in April 1917. It took the USA 1 year to mobilize so Germany threw everything at the Allies in the meantime. 1917-1918 most brutal part of the war. By August 1918, the USA had brought fresh soldiers and equipment to the Western Front which boosted morale and finally broke the stalemate. 1.2.8. Analyze the social, economic and political impact World War I had on Canada. (a) 51 (9) Asked 2016

Social: 1. During WWI the status of women improved and resistance by men against acknowledging the abilities of women were gradually set aside. 2. During the War women participated in many activities that promoted their cause for social, economic, and political equality. (ex: suffrage) 3. Women formed the nucleus of munitions industry workers. 4. Women replaced men in offices, factories, schools, etc. 5. Women raised money for the war effort. 6. Women attended to sick and injured on the battlefields of Europe. 51 (9) Political: 1. The suffrage political goal was finally won in 1918 when women won their right to vote in federal elections. 2. The military service bill (conscription) introduced Robert Bordens conservative government in 1917 had a political impact on Canada by hurting French-English Canadian relations. 3. Canadas contribution to the war effort (especially at Vimy Ridge) earned her international respect and she emerged from the war as a country more independent from Britain. Ex: Canada won a separate seat at the Paris Peace Conference and signed the peace treaty as a

separate nation. Also, Canada was given representation in the new League of Nations. Economic: 1. WWI produced a boom in Canada industry. Steel and Munitions production and manufacturing grew dramatically. During the war almost everyone could find a job. 2. The Canadian economy now relied on industry as well as agriculture, lumbering, fishing, and mining. 3. Canada has been changed from agricultural economy into a growing industrial nation. This laid the basis for a stronger and more prosperous country. 1.3.2. Analyze French and British objectives at the Paris Peace Conference. (a) 51 (10) Asked June 2005 France: 1. make Germany pay huge war REPARATIONS ($) 2. REMOVE threat and make Germany powerless 3. RHINELAND to be demilitarised 4. RETURN AlsaceLorraine to France 5. War Guilt clause

Great Britain: 1. Objective to ensure security of sea lanes to its empire. 2. Cripple the German Navy. 3. Wanted a Germany that was no threat to Britain but was strong enough to act as a buffer against Bolshevism in Russia so Britain didnt demand reparations. 1.3.4. Draw conclusions about whether or not the Treaty of Versailles was a just peace treaty. (a) 51 (11) Asked June 2006 SAY THE TREATY WAS NOT JUST. Heres why: 1. Germany was not allowed to attend the peace treaty. She had to wait and accept the Treaty in its final form, or risk having the war restart. 2. Forced reparations payments on Germany. Total was set at US$64 billion (approx. US$785 billion in 2011) in 1921. 3. Deflating Germanys self-image. War guilt clause = Article 231. 4. Weakened German economy. Germany went bankrupt soon after and hyperinflation soon followed.

5. Drastically reduced her military. Luftwaffe eliminated, standing army reduced to 100,000 men, etc 1.3.5. Explain the purpose for creating the League of Nations. (a) Asked June 2011 The League of Nations came into being after the end of World War One. The League of Nation's task was simple - to ensure that war never broke out again. After the turmoil caused by the Versailles Treaty, many looked to the League to bring stability to the world. The LoN was created to preserve peace in Europe after WWI (part of Wilsons 14 points). Its objectives: 1. disarmament 2. prevent wars 3. resolve conflicts through negotiation 4. improve global quality of life 51 (12) Question 52 HAS TO BE AN INTEGRATION

(i) QUESTION FROM UNIT 1. *There are 3 possible questions in this section. 5 points 1.1.8. Assess how German and British attitudes toward war on the eve of World War I contributed to rivalry and conflict. (i) Asked June 2005, 2006, 2007, 2010 August 2008 1. Germany and Britain believed that any war would be short. 2. Both countries had an imperialist attitude. 3. Both had a strong pride in their nation. 4. Britain felt that Germany was a threat to its position in the world. 5. Germany felt left out of the race for colonies. 52 (1)

52 (2) 1.2.9. Assess the issue of responsibility for the outbreak of World War I. (i) Asked June 2008, 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016 August 2006, 2007, 2009 1. Responsibility for the outbreak of World War I was partially shared and is VERY CONTROVERSIAL. 2. However, it can be argued that Germany and Austria-Hungary can take more responsibility than other nations as the smoking gun for turning a small squabble in the Balkans into a major conflagration rests with Germany and Austria-Hungary. 3. Causes were SHARED by all major nations prior to WWI, so ALL nations can be blamed for the war. 4. Causes of WWI: Alliance systems, Nationalism, Imperialism, Arms race. 5. The Schlieffen Plan. 6. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Sophia. 7. The Zimmermann Telegram. 8. German blank cheque for Austria-Hungary. 9. Attitude of nations that it would be a short war.

10. Status quo of British supremacy. 11. Technological developments (i.e. dreadnought). 52 (3) 1.3.6. Predict what impact the Versailles Treaty might have on Germany and European stability during the post-war period. (i) Asked June 2004, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2017 August 2004, 2005 Economic Stability: 1. Economically, the reparations Germany had to pay were excessive. Extra money was printed, which led to hyper-inflation, and subsequently, economic collapse. 2. Germany lost ten percent of its land, all overseas colonies, 12.5% of its population, 16% of its coalfields in the Saar Valley and its iron also. 3. Germanys inability to pay reparations led to an occupation of industrial Germany (the Ruhr) by France and Belgium from 1922 to 1923. This led Germans to further resent the Allies and the inability of their own Weimar government to stop the Allied occupation. 4. Germanys economic situation was relieved in 1924 by the American sponsored

Dawes Plan which adjusted reparations payments and provided Germany with loans to help stabilize their economy. This plan was very successful and from 19241929 the economic situation in Germany was much better. 5. With this economic stability came political stability until 1929 when the Dawes Plan eventually failed as it was entirely dependent on the strength of the American economy. This made Germany the hardest-hit European country during the early stages of the Great Depression. 52 (3) Political Stability: 1. Overall, the unfavorable economic and political terms as dictated by the Big 3 (or Big 4) infuriated and humiliated many Germans. Hitler later used it to seek revenge as it provided fertile ground for propaganda against the Allies. 2. Germanys army was reduced to 100,000 men; it had no air force and a very small navy. 3. The hated War Guilt Clause was even more humiliating. Many turned to rightwing political groups, hence the rise of the Nazis. 4. Too many political parties in the Reichstag meant that any government in Germany was unstable. This often left Weimar governments at the mercy of extremist parties like the National Socialist Party (Nazis). 5. The Treaty did not bring resolution, but rather encouraged revenge. 6. Germany was initially not allowed to join the League of Nations.

7. German violations of the treaty grew bolder until Hitler and the Nazis killed the Treaty in 1933. Question 53 CAN BE EITHER AN APPLICATION (a) QUESTION OR INTEGRATION (i) QUESTION FROM UNIT 2. *There are 13 possible questions in this section. 10 points 2.1.2. Using historical documents explain Marxs ideas on: the relations between social classes; work and economic value; the bourgeoisie; and the proletariat. (a) Asked NOT YET Relations between social classes : Marxism proposed the exploited working class (proletariat) would rise up and overthrow the oppressive business class (bourgeoisie) to create a classless society where everyone is equal.

The value of work: Most valuable asset in a countryit is necessary for society. Everyone must work in a communist state for the good of all who live there. The bourgeoisie: The dominant class who owned the wealth. They profit from the labour of the workers. The proletariat: The working class who dont own the wealth or control the means of production but must sell their labour for the bourgeoisie to profit from. 53 (1) 2.1.3. Analyze the impact of discontent in pre-revolutionary Russia. (a) Asked June 2005, 2010 August 2006 1. Plight of peasants and factory workers. 2. Political reforms by the Liberals and Marxists. 3. Bloody Sunday. 4. Class distinctions. 5. Autocratic government and divine right to rule. 6. Russo-Japanese War.

7. Ill-equipped for war. 8. Particular battles with significant losses; i.e. Tannenburg. 9. Tsarina was German born, thus rising suspicions. 10. Educated middle class desiring reform which led to riots. 53 (2) 2.1.5. Compare the roles of each political leader in the Russian Revolution: Alexander Kerensky, Leon Trotsky, Vladimir Lenin, and Nicholas II. (a) Asked NOT YET Alexander Kerensky: A democratic socialist, he became War Minister and weeks later Prime Minister in the Provisional government following the March Revolution of 1917. He was determined to keep Russia in World War I, but his attempts to launch a powerful offensive in the summer were unpopular with the Russian people who were anxious for peace. He was pushed out of office by the Bolsheviks in the November Revolution of 1917. 53 (3)

53 (3) Leon Trotsky: He returned to Russia from exile in 1917 to join the Bolsheviks and played a leading role in their seizure of power. He became Commissar for Foreign Affairs (1917-18), and as Commissar for War (1918-25) he created the Red Army and was largely responsible for its success in the Civil War (1918-1920). After Lenins death, Stalin undermined Trotskys authority and gained control of the party administration. Trotsky was deprived from all his offices, expelled from the Communist Party in 1927 and exiled in 1929, but continued to agitate, intrigue and condemn Stalins ambitions. He was alleged to have organized, with the help of foreign governments, a vast plot to overthrow the Soviet regime, was sentenced to death in his absence (1937), and assassinated by a Soviet agent in Mexico City in 1940. 53 (3) Vladimir Lenin: With German help, he returned to Russia from exile in 1917. As a leader of the Bolsheviks, Lenin and his supporters steadily spread their views. Bolsheviks

supporters made popular speeches in factories and at the front. They delivered Lenins ideas, simplified into the slogan "Peace, Land and Bread". This slogan appealed to many soldiers, workers and peasants. The Bolshevik newspaper Pravda (Truth) poured out anti-government propaganda and support grew for the Bolsheviks while it declined for the Provisional government. Nicholas II: Tsar of Russia from 1894-1917. During his reign the following events occurred: The Russo-Japanese War, alliance with Britain and France against the Central Powers in WWI, food shortages because of bad harvests, and the Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917. Nicholas opposed badly needed political reform, although the 1905 revolution forced him to introduce the Duma, and from 1911 was unduly influenced in his choice of ministers by the unscrupulous Rasputin. He was forced to abdicate in 1917, and he and his family were executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918. 2.1.7. Analyze how the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and war communism enabled Lenin to consolidate power in Russia. (a) Asked NOT YET 53 (4)

War Communism: Introduced by Lenin during Civil War. This meant that the government took over the economy to make sure it had the weapons and food it needed. Government policies included: 1. Seizing peasant grain 2. Terror (i.e. secret police (Cheka) and censorship to silence cities) 3. Execution of the royal family 4. Government took control of most industries, railroads, and banks. 53 (4) Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: 1. Lenin sent Trotsky to Brest-Litovsk to negotiate peace for Russia. The GermanAustrian demands were harsh but Lenin was determined to end the war at any price. He knew that Russia was on the point of Civil war and it would be impossible for his government to fight the Germans and the Whites. 2. Russia had to pay a huge fine for the German cost of war and had to hand over the following lands to Germany and Austria-Hungary: Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Georgia, and Ukraine. 3. Much of the territory lost included its most valuable farmland (i.e. Ukraine) and industrial areas around the Baltic.

4. Although many Russians were furious, Lenin believed that these sacrifices had to be made to save the revolutions. 2.1.8. Assess the economic and social impact of the New Economic Policy and Five Year Plans. (*i) 53 (5) Asked June 2017, August 2005, 2008 1. Lenin created the NEP and Stalin created the Five Year Plans. 2. Lenins philosophy was two steps forward and one step back. This meant that in order to make communism work elements of capitalism had to be introduced to increase worker motivation and production levels. 3. Before the NEP farmers had no incentive to grow more food since the government would seize all the crops grown. Thus, food levels were very low and the population suffered greatly from starvation. They were also demoralized, doing anything to try and survive. 4. With the introduction of the NEP, suddenly, farmers were producing more crops and conditions for the Russian people began to improve. The NEP helped create a group of wealthy farmers known as Kulaks.

53 (5) 5. The objective of Stalins Five Year Plans was to stimulate growth of the Russian economy by switching from a purely agricultural society to a society based on technological advancements, education, and secondary production. 6. In order to achieve the capital to overhaul the economy Stalin seized control of peasant farms and combined them into larger state controlled farms (collectivization). The farmers who were not willing to freely give up their farms were eliminated. 7. Stalin also had all other nay-sayers who did not agree with his position killed (purges). 8. The Five Year Plans led to a slow turn around in the economy but many people suffered and starved to death while dealing with drought and waiting for new farmers who were now in control of collectivized farms to be trained in how to produce crops. 9. By the time the second Five Year Plan was in place, The Soviet Union experienced a dramatic economic turn around but many ask: At what price? 2.1.9. Analyze the methods Stalin used to exercise control over the Soviet people. (a)

53 (6) Asked June 2008, 2009, 2015 Aug. 2004 1. Stalin organized a totalitarian government whereby a single party dictatorship controlled every aspect of citizens lives. In totalitarian states individual rights count for little or nothing, absolute obedience to government is not to be questioned, critics are often silent and extreme nationalism is promoted. 2. Under Stalin, the government controlled newspapers, the radio, and all forms of communication. He censored the press and used it to pour out propaganda praising his policies. Soviet writers and artists were expected to glorify the Soviet Union and praise Stalin. Those who refused were often expelled from the Soviet Union, exiled to Siberia, or could not get their work published. 53 (6) 3. Collectivization: The NEP created a situation where some peasants grew rich by selling their surplus crops. They became known as Kulaks and hired poor peasants to work for them. Lenins policy allowed a capitalist class of peasants to develop. This was against communist beliefs. The farming system was inefficient

and many were too poor to afford modern equipment (i.e. use of horse-drawn wooden ploughs instead of tractors). By 1927 Stalin felt Soviet agriculture had to be modernized. Besides, the Kulaks had always embarrassed the government because communist ideas did not allow for individual profit-making. Stalin decided the Kulaks had to go = dekulakization 4. Stalins purges to purify the Communist Party. Millions died. 2.2.2. Analyze each basic element of fascism. (a) Asked June 2006, 2012, 2014, 2016 53 (7) August 2007 Provide a historical example of each element of fascism as it relates to Germany or Italy. 1. extreme nationalism 2. dictatorship - devotion of leader 3. economic self-sufficiency 4. glorification of war 5. totalitarianism

6. creation of a scapegoat / Jews 7. world domination 8. Lebensraum 9. glorification of the past 10. emotion not reason 11. simple answers to complex questions 12. anti-communism 53 (8) 2.2.4. Examine how problems of the Weimar Republic contributed to Hitlers rise to power. (a) Asked June 2007, 2011, 2013 1. The economic crisis that resulted from reparation payments and Germanys inability to pay them. 2. Germanys inability to pay led to French and Belgian troops occupying the Ruhr, and Germany going on strike. 3. This strike led to hyperinflation and the German currency being virtually worthless. 4. The bitterness Germans felt about having signed and accepted the Treaty of Versailles. Extremist groups such as Hitlers Nazi party played on these feelings for party support.

5. The economic crisis in the early 1920's led to Hitlers first attempt to assume power. (Munich Beer Hall Putsch) 6. The Great Depression led to discontent in Germany and led to the rise of the extremist parties such as the Nazi party. 7. Rich and middle class Germans turned to Hitler in fear of a growing communist movement in Germany. 8. Hitler used propaganda to sway the German people. 9. The Weimar government was blamed for signing the Treaty of Versailles, so Hitler openly attacked it. 2.2.5. Explain factors that were major causes of the Great Depression. (a) Asked June 2004 53 (9) 1. Overproduction: Companies were producing too many goods. American goods in particular could not be sold abroad because other countries had put tariffs (taxes) on them to make them more expensive. When the demand for goods began to fall, workers' wages were cut and some workers became

unemployed, which meant that they could no longer afford to buy the new consumer goods. 2. Buying on credit: People were allowed to borrow too much money and they could not afford to pay it back. People had taken out loans or invested their savings in the stock market, but there were too few controls on the buying and selling of shares. The American government had not taken any notice of what was going on; businesses and banks were left to regulate themselves. Too many people thought that share prices could only go up, which encouraged them to invest more than they could afford in the stock market. Banks did not have enough money in reserve to help businesses that were in trouble. This was because they had lent too much money but now the banks were facing difficulties because people could not afford to repay their loans. The stock market crash of 1929 was the trigger which made these underlying problems obvious and the Great Depression quickly ensued. 53 (11) 2.2.8. Analyze Nazi policies toward Jews, gypsies, communists, homosexuals and religious minorities. Asked (a)

NOT YET Jews:The Nazis advocated terror against Jews (Kristallnacht) and boycotts against Jewish businesses. The Nuremburg Laws stripped away Jewish human rights. The final solution saw 6 million Jews murdered in concentration and death camps. Gypsies: Sent to concentration camps. Communists:captured as prisoners of war (the arch-enemy of fascists). Forced to wear a red star and sent to concentration camps to be murdered. Homosexuals:forced to wear a pink triangle and sent to concentration camps. Men were castrated and experimented on to cure their illness. Religious minorities:most were not tolerated. Jehovahs Witness were a particular target and forced to abandon their beliefs and join the Nazis. Between 2,500 and 5,000 were murdered in camps. Question 53 10 points * INTEGRATION (i) QUESTIONS FROM UNIT 2 INCLUDE: 2.1.4. Evaluate how the policies of the Provisional Government led to its

downfall and the Bolshevik takeover by examining: the continued war effort the postponed land reform. (13) 2.2.3 Assess how each of the following played an important role in Mussolinis rise to power in Italy: economic difficulties weakness of coalition governments industrialist fears of socialism and communism 2.2.6. Use selected pieces of music, art, literature, or fashion to draw conclusions about the impact of the Great Depression on the daily lives of citizens. (*i) 53 (10) Asked August 2009 1. The Great Depression changed the dream that people could work hard and reap the financial benefits of hard work. People believed it when the government called for prosperous times ahead, but their prosperity was lost and their dreams were gone.

2. The underlying theme is that people worked too hard and sacrificed too much to be in this situation (the Great Depression) to be treated this way. 3. Hoovervilles or slums developed on the outskirts of cities where those who had lost everything often lived. This often resulted in homelessness and starvation. 4. Increase of government-run work camps and soup kitchens. 5. Riding the rails and unemployment remained high until the Depression ended. Question 54 HAS TO BE AN INTEGRATION (i) QUESTION FROM UNIT 3. *There are 4 possible questions in this section. 10 points 3.1.6. Evaluate the effectiveness of appeasement in containing the territorial expansion of Nazism. (i) Asked yet?: June 2004, 2009, 2011, 2012

54 (1) August 2004, 2005, 2007 1. Appeasement is best known for its ineffectiveness. 2. Reasons for appeasement include; War weariness from WWI War debt from WWI Inability of countries to fund military spending during the G.D. Fascism was seen by some as a possible solution to the G.D. British guilt over harsh conditions of Versailles Treaty Ineffectiveness of the League of Nations to deal with aggression Greater fear of communism that fascism Chamberlains Its all so far away philosophy 3. Examples of appeasement include; Saarland plebiscite 1935 Remilitarisation of Rhineland Anschluss Sudetenland (Munich Agreement) Remainder of Czechoslovakia

Memel The Polish Corridor & Danzig 3.2.2. Assess the early success of Germany in the first year of World War II. (i) Asked June 2007, 2012, 2014, 2017 54 (2) August 2008 1. Hitlers rearmament in the 1930s was a success but broke the Versailles Treaty. During this time, the Allies were not rearming, in large part due to the financial constraints of the Depression and false hope in the collective security of the League of Nations. 2. Germany adopted a change in strategies after losing WWI. Blitzkrieg (using an onslaught of aircraft, tanks and paratroopers to quickly defeat an enemy). Hitler perfected his Blitzkrieg tactics during the Spanish Civil War. 3. Hitler was prepared. The Allies had been avoiding war in the 1930s (appeasement) and focused on dealing with the Depression. 4. Most Allies preferred fascism to communism and supported Hitler as a buffer

against Stalin. 54 (2) 5. Many Allies felt Germany had been harshly treated by the Versailles Treaty and sympathized with and supported the Nazis. 6. Hitler Had signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact which guaranteed a one front war for Germany. 7. A sentiment existed already by the 1930s that the Versailles Treaty was too harsh on Germany and that Hitler was only fixing the treatys mistakes. As a result the League of Nations did nothing to stop Hitler. 8. The misery and destruction of WWI were still fresh in the minds of the British and French who did not want a repeat of that war. 3.2.8. Judge whether or not the dropping of atomic bombs on Japan was justified. (i) Asked yet?: 54 (3) June 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016

August 2006, 2009 Arguments IN FAVOR of the bomb: 1. The War Party was in power in Japan and rejected previous peace conditions. 2. If the USA had decided to invade, they would have endured enormous causalities. --Most Japanese people were ready to fight to the death as it was a matter of honor not to let Japan fall to the USA. 3. In 1945, Japan had almost 4 million soldiers and 4,800 kamikaze pilots ready for suicide missions. 4. Consultants told President Truman that if the war kept going until 1946, the USA might lose another million soldiers. 5. The USA and Britain were afraid that Stalin would get access to Asia and the Pacific as he was doing in Eastern Europe. The longer the war with Japan lasted, the greater the chance existed that Stalin would occupy parts of Asia and turn them communist. By 8 August 1945, the Red Army had invaded Manchuria in the hopes of sharing the victory in the Pacific with the USA. 6. If the USA continued to bomb cities, this would almost certainly have killed more civilians than the atomic bombs did. The American bombing campaign destroyed about of all Japanese homes between March and August 1945. 7. Japan gave up and signed an armistice only one week after the bombs fell. 8. The cost. The USA had spent millions of dollars making the bomb. By July 1945 it had been well tested and was ready to use. 54 (3)

Arguments AGAINST the bomb: 1. Instead of dropping the bombs on cities, the Americans could have chosen a military target, or even a sparsely populated region to show the sheer force of the bomb and frighten the Japanese government. 2. Japan had already been defeated using conventional methods. The atomic bomb made no difference. 3. The atomic bomb was simply an awful weapon to use. It caused thousands of injuries and deaths and still kills today because of the effects of the radiation poisoning. When the Americans dropped the bomb, at the center of the explosion the heat was so strong that solids were turned into gases. Further from the center, thousands burnt to death. The explosion created a wind of 800 km/h which crushed thousands of others. The radiation caused skin to dissolve and fall off the body in bands. 4. At Hiroshima, 80,000 were killed immediately. This number would rise to 138,000 as a result of the radiation. 5. At Nagasaki, 40,000 were killed immediately. This number would rise to 48,000 as a result of the radiation. 6. The USA did not use the bomb to end the war with Japan, rather as a warning to Stalin to stop expanding into Asia. 7. It was one of the causes of the Cold War as it created an arms race to develop nuclear technology between the USA and USSR after 1945.

3.3.5. Evaluate how new leaders and technological developments increased tension at Potsdam. (i) 54 (4) Asked June 2006 1. Between July 17 and August 17, 1945, the last wartime conference was held at Potsdam. Stalin met with U.S. President Harry Truman (Roosevelt had died) and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee (Churchill had lost the recent British election). 2. There was disagreement on the question of Poland. 3. Reparations would be paid in machinery, the Soviets had the right to take what they wanted from the Eastern sector of Germany and 35% from the western sector. 4. They could not agree on the future of Germany so the temporary arrangement to divide Germany and Berlin remained 5. President Truman saw things in black and white terms, with little room for compromise. As a result, he adopted a get tough attitude with the Soviets (different from Roosevelt). He believed the Soviets were acting like a bully in Europe and should be made to mend its ways.

54 (4) 6. Unlike Roosevelt, Truman was highly suspicious of the Soviets and had no intention of working closely with Stalin like Roosevelt. This new approach towards the Soviets increased tensions. 7. In August 1945, the United States ended WWII by dropping atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The atomic bomb became a source of tension for several reasons: Truman had not told Stalin that the U.S. intended to drop these on Japan. The U.S. refused to share the secret of how to make such a bomb. Stalin was convinced the U.S. would use the bomb to win worldwide power. Stalin ordered his scientists to develop an atomic bomb. Question 55 *HAS TO BE AN APPLICATION (a) QUESTION FROM UNIT 4.

*There are 10 possible questions in this section. 5 points 4.1.2. Analyze the impact of Churchills Iron Curtain speech and Stalins two hostile camps speech on the deterioration of Soviet-Western relations. (a) 55 (1) Asked June 2016 August 2004, 2008 1. In general, the speeches increased paranoia between both sides. 2. In Stalins camps speech he discusses the nature of capitalism. It shows Stalins paranoia over the intentions of the western world. He delivered it to his people as a way of scaring them. He wanted them to begin sacrificing consumer goods and increasing production in order to be ready for the possible threat of western nations. 3. The western world saw this quote as Stalin saying that eventual war between The Soviet Union and the West was inevitable.

4. Convinced Americans to accept President Trumans hard-line polices against communism. 5. Helped promote the policy of containment. 6. Helped to form Spheres of Influence and new alliances. 55 (2) 4.1.3. Analyze how the policy of containment was reflected in the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan and the formation of NATO. (a) Asked June 2007, 2011, 2013, 2015 Aug. 2006 Marshall Plan: - The purpose of the Marshall Plan was to provide money, goods and grants for Europes recovery as it had been devastated during WWII. - It was not done solely for altruistic reasons; it was done to prevent these devastated counties from falling into Soviet hands. - Historically, extreme financial hardship often led to radical solutions and the US wanted to avoid the drift of European countries into the Soviet sphere of

influence. --This was consistent with the policy of containment and the Truman Doctrine. NATO: - North Atlantic Treaty Organization: military union of western nations - Real objective was to stop spread of communism Truman Doctrine: - Official policy which offered economic and military support to stop Soviet expansion(and spread of communism) Outcome 4.2.2 Analyze the (1) Korean War, (2) Cuban Missile Crisis and (3) Vietnam War from the following perspectives: (a) CAUSES, (b) RESULTS. 5 points 4.2.2. Analyze the causes of the Korean War. (a) Asked yet?:

55 (3) NOT YET 1. Problems with the division of Korea as the Soviets supported a communist regime under Kim Il-Sung in the North while the Americans supported a democracy in the South under Syngman Rhee. 2. The United Nations attempted to hold free elections in both Koreas to see if reunification was possible. The communists boycotted the elections in the South and they were never held in the North. 3. American troops pulled out of South Korea as a democracy had been installed while weapons were stockpiled in the communist North. 4. On 25 June 1950, 90,000 North Korean troops crossed the 38th parallel and invaded the South. It was the start of a civil war. 5. Containment and the Domino Theory explain why the U.S.A. pressured the United Nations to send forces to liberate South Korea from the communist aggressors making it an international war. 4.2.2. Analyze the results of the Korean War. (a) Asked yet?:

*See Outcome 4.2.3* NOT YET 55 (4) 4.2.2. Analyze the causes of the Cuban Missile Crisis. (a) Asked yet?: June 2004, 2009 55 (5) August 2007 1. The Cuban Revolution lead by Castro put a red country very close to the USA. Once USA refused to support Cuba, Castro turned to U.S.S.R. 2. In April 1961, with Kennedy's knowledge, the CIA funded, trained, armed and transported 1,300 Cuban exiles to invade Cuba. They landed at the Bay of Pigs and made an attempt to overthrow Castro. The invasion was a disaster, and President

Kennedy was humiliated. This only strengthened the ties between Castro and the Kremlin. 3. The U.S.S.R. put missiles in Cuba! Fearing another invasion, Castro asked the U.S.S.R. for military support (weapons, etc.) so Khrushchev uses this as excuse to put nuclear weapons in Cuba (close to USA). American spy planes found the missiles on 14 October 1962 and told Americans that almost every city was in range. The CMC had begun. 4.2.2. Analyze the results of the Cuban Missile Crisis. (a) Asked yet?: 55 (6) NOT YET 1. Most serious crisis of Cold War! 2. Portrayed as a success for the West and a victory for President Kennedy. 3. Embarrassing for the U.S.S.R. Khrushchev was forced out by his own Party and Castro felt he had been used as a pawn by the Soviets. 4. Encouraged a partial thaw in relations. Begins the process of DTENTE. U.S.A. & U.S.S.R. signed a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963.

5. In 1963 a hotline was installed in the White House and the Kremlin to avoid such brinkmanship in future. 4.2.2. Analyze the causes of the Vietnam War. (a) Asked yet?: 1. 2. 3. 4. 55 (7) NOT YET Problems with the division of Vietnam created a communist regime under Ho Chi Minh in the North with a weak democracy in the South under Ngo Diem after the defeat of French forces in 1954. Using the Ho Chi Minh Trail, the Viet Minh supplied the Viet Cong to attack the pro-U.S. regime in the South, hoping to unite North and South Vietnam under communism.

The U.S.A. entered Vietnam because of the Domino Theory where they did not want to see Vietnam unite under communism. An incident in the Gulf of Tonkin saw the U.S.A. allege to have been fired upon by the Viet Minh. This gave President Johnson the possibility to declare war on communist forces in Vietnam. 4.2.2. Analyze the results of the Vietnam War. (a) Asked yet?: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 55 (8) June 2005, 2008 An escalation of anti-war protests in the U.S.A. Morale on the home-front dropped. Incidents like the Kent State massacre did not help.

The U.S. military was weakened as it could not beat a small nation. In 1975, less than two years after the last U.S. soldiers left, Saigon fell to communist forces. Vietnam was united into one country under communism and Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City. Many countries turned against the USA as tales of atrocities such as the My Lai Massacre were leaked around the world. The U.S.A. pursued a policy of DTENTE with the U.S.S.R. to help negotiate a peace with the Vietnamese communists. 4.3.2. Analyze the impact of perestroika and glasnost on the economic and social conditions in the Soviet Union.(a) Asked yet?: 55 (9) August 2005, 2007 Gorbachev realized that the greatest threat to the USSR was economic collapse not invasion from the West. He began to see communism as a problem and began to move to a freer market system, hence he began the reform of perestroika (economic restructuring). This again was viewed by the West as a good thing and eased the tensions of the Cold War.

The reforms created social problems such as food rationing, a breakdown of the health care system, drug and alcohol abuse (especially vodka), and hardships for women who were an equal part of society, but made much less pay than men while having to maintain their traditional roles in the household and usually wait in long lines for few rationed items. Open discussion of problems under glasnost improved some social problems but led to calls for more freedoms so much so that when elections were held, citizens began to vote against communist candidates. The Chernobyl incident also helped expose the backwardness of the regime, and because of glasnost, the media could report on the corruption and poor technology that led to the disaster. Communism was so discredited by 1991 that the Soviet Union had collapsed by the end of December as Gorbachev dismantled the Soviet Communist Party and Yeltsin took control of a democratic Russia. 55 (10) 4.3.4. Analyze challenges facing former Soviet republics. (a) Asked yet?: June 2006 August 2009 POLITICAL REFORM: The switch to democracy was a new concept and caused many problems for the Soviet regime. Ex: how could the republics incorporate democratic

principles into a former communist system? ECONOMIC STABILITY: Moving from a static-controlled economy to a free-market economy proved to be a very big challenge. Strikes, forbidden under communism, became common as people felt that their living and working conditions were worsening. Soviet people felt their needs, for such common items as food, housing, and medical supplies, were not addressed. Capitalism also caused spiraling inflation and escalating unemployment. ETHNIC RELATIONS: The former U.S.S.R. consisted of 50 different nationalities speaking 100 languages and practicing many religions. Many groups under the old Soviet system were restricted and separatist activities were repressed. Under Gorbachev these groups were given more freedoms, and become more vocal and difficult to control. Arguments over language rights and other problems surfaced which challenged the peaceful co-existence of these ethnic groups and sometimes created rivalries among these groups. (e.g. Ossetians vs Georgians in 2008 in Georgia). Question 56 HAS TO BE AN INTEGRATION (i) QUESTION FROM UNIT 4. *There are 5 possible questions in this

section. 5 points 4.1.4. Evaluate the reaction of the Soviet Union to containment by referring to the Molotov Plan, Berlin Blockade/Airlift and formation of the Warsaw (i) 2009 August 2005, 2008, 2009 Asked yet?: JunePact. 2005, 2006, 56 (1) Explanation of containment (stopping the spread of communism). Molotov Plan to provide aid to struggling nations and secure their loyalty. The Molotov Plan was a means of counterbalancing the Marshall Plan, creating a recovery plan for the Soviet Union and many of its satellite countries. Many countries who were considering the U.S. plan accepted the Molotov Plan instead. Berlin Blockade/Airlift The Berlin Blockade was a blockade of all rail, road, and

canal links in and out of West Berlin and cutting off electrical power from East to West Berlin. The Soviets did this as a counter attack to the Western nations actions of establishing economic co-operation and currency reform in their zones. The U.S.led group was setting in motion the plans for an independent West German state. The Soviets did not like this and did what they could to prevent it from happening. Stalin wanted all of Germany to be reunited under one communist state under Moscows control. The policy of blocking off West Germany was not successful because of Americas quick move to airlift supplies into West Germany. Creation of the Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Pact was a military alliance set up by the Soviets where members pledged to assist each other in event of an attack. It completed the alliance system for both sides and was modeled after NATO and the threat perceived from that alliance. 4.2.3. Assess whether the Korean War provides a better example of American containment or United Nations peacemaking. (i) 56 (2) Asked June 2007, 2011, 2013 August 2004 THE WAR WAS CONTAINMENT. Heres why:

Truman intended to use the UN to stop communist aggression. It was convenient and fortunate to do so under the U.N. banner but the U.S.A. would have sent troops there regardless to prevent the spread of communism = containment/The Domino Theory (define). Mostly American resources (men, weapons) used in conflict (90%+). All the 16 other countries who did send combat forces were friends of the USA. 56 (2) 4.2.3. Assess whether the Korean War provides a better example of American containment or United Nations peacemaking. Asked June 2007,(i) 2011, 2013 August 2004 THE WAR WAS PEACEKEEPING. Heres why: The definition of peacemaking = the diplomatic effort intended to move a violent conflict into non-violent dialogue, to

end the violence between the contending parties - usually done through negotiation. 16 nations, not just the USA sent forces to Korea 30 more countries sent medical units, hospital ships, food, supplies, and equipment (not just the USA) = combined UN effort The ceasefire, signed 3 years after the war began, showed the strength of the UN as a military peacemaker and the strength of collective action. OVERALL ASSESSMENT: The UN was involved only because the USA decided it should be, and the USSR was not in a position to veto. Outcome 4.3.3 Asked June 2010, 2015, 2016, 2017 August 2004 Assess the impact of Gorbachevs reform on Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union and the global community with

reference to: (1) collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, (2) re-unification of the two Germanys, (3) end of the Cold War. 5 points 4.3.3. Assess the impact of Gorbachevs reforms on the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe. Asked (i) yet?: June 2004 August 2006 56 (3) In 1985 Gorbachev pulled most Soviet military forces out of Eastern Europe. This revived the hopes and desires of many East Europeans to rid themselves of the communist regime and many demonstrations to this effect began to happen across the Soviet bloc. Without the Soviet military muscle to crush or dissuade these anti-communist protestations, the smaller communist states were

often unable to quiet the revolts alone which led to the collapse of Soviet regimes in many countries. Gorbachevs reforms are perestroika (economic restructuring) and glasnost (openness). These reforms reverberated throughout the communist bloc in Eastern Europe and led to large protests in East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Romania as many sought reforms. 56 (3) Gorbachev told the Eastern bloc nations around the same time that they too must chose the path that they were to follow. He told them that while he would prefer that they remain aligned to the USSR and communist, that was ultimately their choice. Hungary was the first to test the waters of change by removing the barbed wire fence separating Hungary from Austria and by honoring the revolutionaries of the 1956 Uprising including P.M. Imre Nagy with an official internment ceremony in 1987. When the Soviets did not react, other Eastern bloc nations followed suit demanding change. Most were bloodless except the violent overthrow of Nicolae Ceauescu in Romania.

East Germans clamored for change soon after but were met with resistance from Stalinist East German leaders. They looked to Gorbachev and the USSR for support against change but Gorbachev refused to intervene and within weeks the East German leadership collapsed. The rest of Eastern Europe followed soon after. In 1989, Gorbachev had free elections in the Soviet Union. For the satellite states in Eastern Europe, events in the Soviet Union lead to the destruction of the communist system. Eager to seize the opportunity, countries in Eastern Europe began to claim their independence after 40 years of Soviet control. The Iron Curtain, a symbol of the Cold War, had been removed. 4.3.3. Assess the impact of Gorbachevs reforms on German reunification. Asked yet?: (i) NOT YET 56 (4) In 1985 Gorbachev pulled most Soviet military forces out of Eastern Europe, including East Germany. This revived the hopes and desires of many East Germans to reunite with West Germany and many

demonstrations to this effect began to happen across the country, especially in divided Berlin. Gorbachevs reforms are perestroika (economic restructuring) and glasnost (openness). These reforms reverberated throughout the communist bloc in Eastern Europe and led to large protests across East Germany as many sought reforms. These reforms were completely ignored by Honecker and his conservative communist regime. This only led to even more protests across the East Germany and culminated in a showdown in Leipzig between protestors and the State Police which saw the Police not use violence to stop the protestors, showing more weakness in Honeckers regime. This showed the people and his Party that Honecker was no longer a strong leader. He was replaced by a reformist government who on 9 November 1989 ended border restrictions between East and West at the Berlin Wall. This is seen as the tearing down of the Berlin Wall. 4.3.3. Assess the impact of Gorbachevs reforms on the end of the Cold (i) 2008 Asked War. yet?: June

56 (5) Gorbachev challenged the West to stop the arms race. He reduced spending on the Soviet Army and tried to increase consumer goods. The many peace initiatives changed the perception of Gorbachevs country. The reform of glasnost (openness) changed the perception of the U.S.S.R. from censorship and control to freedom and openness. Gorbachev realized that the greatest threat to the U.S.S.R. was economic collapse not invasion from the West. He began to see communism as a problem and began to move to a freer market system, hence he began the reform of perestroika (economic restructuring). This again was viewed by the West as a good thing and eased the tensions of the Cold War. In 1989, Gorbachev had free elections in the Soviet Union. For the satellite states in Eastern Europe, events in the Soviet Union lead to the destruction of the communist system. Eager to seize the opportunity, countries in Eastern Europe began to claim their independence after 40 years of Soviet control. The Iron Curtain, a symbol of the Cold War, had been removed.

Question 57 *HAS TO BE AN APPLICATION (a) QUESTION FROM UNIT 6. *There are 4 possible questions in this section. 5 points 57 (1) 6.1.2. Analyze examples to illustrate three peacekeeping roles that U.N. forces are sometimes called upon toAsked perform troubled june 20,in 201311Aug.

2005, 2008, 2009 areas. (a) Mediation of disputes: Suez Crisis U.N.E.F. tried to mediate between Israel and Egypt after Nasser (Egypt) nationalized Suez Canal. Peacekeeping (during civil wars): ex. Rwanda United Nations peacekeepers have performed a number of roles including: Humanitarian Aid. Food delivery and distribution. Providing medical expertise. Military efforts in places such as Somalia. Rwanda, Bosnia, etc. Sometimes peacekeepers must take on the role of peacemakers in order to instill order into war torn nations. Help countries create conditions of lasting peace. Humanitarian: Bosnia and Somalia 6.1.2a. Analyze the role of recent U.N. peacemakingAsked efforts

in June Somalia. (a) yet?: 2008 August 2006, 2007 57 (2) 1. In 1992, with Operation Restore Hope, the U.N. authorized the use of massive military force to ensure food reached the people of Somalia. U.N. soldiers were in direct confrontation with the warring factions. 2. In 1993, 18 United States soldiers were killed and their bodies dragged through the streets of Mogadishu. 3. As a result, the U.N.s mission in Somalia changed from humanitarian aid to demobilizing warring factions, resulting in thousands dying in clashes including dozens of peacekeepers. 30,000+ troops were sent to Somalia. 4. This was viewed by many as a change from peacekeeping to peacemaking.

5. The U.N. was unable to maintain a ceasefire, and so the mission ended in failure. U.N. troops were withdrawn in March 1995. 6. By July 2000 the U.N. had set up a Transitional National Government, under U.N. supervision, to create a constitution and hold elections. 57 (3) 6.1.2b. Analyze the role of recent U.N. peacemaking efforts in Bosnia-Herzegovina. (a) Asked yet?: NOT YET 1. The U.N. recognized independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina in April 1992 and imposed harsh sanctions on Serbia for the ethnic cleansing of Muslim and Croats. 2. Established peacekeeping force in Sarajevo to keep relief supplies coming in and uphold (temporary) ceasefires between Serbs and Muslims/ Croats. 3. U.N. forces had NO mandate to impose peace or intervene in conflict.

4. Amid escalating fighting, Yugoslav (President Miloevi) was expelled from the U.N. as it became more dangerous for U.N. peacekeepers stationed there. 5. In February 1994, NATO intervened and bombed a Serbian stronghold in what they deemed a peacemaking operation. 6. In 1995 the Bosnia-Herzegovina War ended when Miloevi signed the Dayton Accord acknowledging a Serb Republic and a MuslimCroat Federation. 7. The War and ethnic cleansing (against Albanians) continued when Serbia invaded Kosovo until NATO forces finally defeated the Serbs in 1999. 57 (4) 6.1.7. Analyze how terrorist attacks such as those on the World Trade Centre and suicide bombings in Israel have posed threats to world peace and security. Asked June 2004,

2005, 2006,(a) 2007, 2009, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2016 & August 2004 Sources of tension: 1. Suicide bombers from fundamentalist groups (like Hamas) want to destroy Israel 2. The USA has supported Israel and many terrorist groups want them out of the Middle East (westernization) 3. Suspected Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) were the reason the USA invaded Iraq in 2003 4. Nuclear weapons in North Korea, India, Pakistan 5. Iran, North Korea pursuing nuclear technology Results: 1. Increased airport security 2. Increased vigilance at home 3. Western invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq 4. Greater border and travel security 5. Culture of fear Question 58

*HAS TO BE AN APPLICATION (a) QUESTION FROM UNIT 5.1. *There are 2 possible questions in this section. 5 points 58 (1) 5.1.3. Explain the causes that led to the Suez Crisis in 1956. (a) June 2007, 2009, 2011, 2012 Nasser to lose Western support due to Americas concern over Augbegan 2008 Nassers nonaligned nationalism and Egypts continuing conflict with Israel, which had close ties to the U.S. The United States realized that Egypt was playing both sides of the fence and were negotiating with both them and the Soviets.

Contrary to international and UN agreements, Egypt stopped all Israeli ships and all ships bound for Israel from using the Suez Canal. The Americans refused financial aid for the Aswan Dam. Nasser reacted immediately by seizing control of the Suez Canal and turned to the Soviets for help in building the Dam. Egypts takeover of the Canal was peaceful; Britain and France the owners were offered market value and full use of the Canal. This event increased global tensions. Britain and France devised a scheme to regain control of the Canal. Israel was to attack Egypt as part of the ongoing Arab-Israeli dispute. Britain and France would land troops at the canal zone on the pretence to protect international shipping. Once there they would take control of the canal, Israel would expand its territory and Nasser would be overthrown. The conspirators miscalculated world reaction. Both the Soviets and Americans were unhappy with the attack and threatened action. 5.1.4. Explain the factors that led to the decline of colonialism following World War II.(a) 58 (2)

1. Atlantic Charter The Atlantic Charter was signed in 1941 by the United States and Great Britain. The agreement promoted and called for the self-determination of all peoples at the conclusion of WW II. The Atlantic Charter was also the blueprint for the new United Nations in their approach to the postwar world. It is ironic that this agreement was signed by Sir Winston Churchill who was a British imperialist to the core, but philosophically and morally, imperialism was no longer acceptable to most Britons and Europeans who were becoming more open-minded and liberal. Colonial troops were fighting and dying for their colonial powers and there was an argument to be made that they deserved their independence in exchange for this service. Asked June 2008, 2010, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 Aug 2007, 2009 5.1.4. Explain the factors that led to the decline of colonialism following World War II.(a) 58 (2) 2. Colonial nationalist movements

Nationalism in Europes colonies was present ever since the Europeans had arrived but it had only led to sporadic revolts and resistance. Ironically, it was the Europeans who provided the training for the nationalist leaders in their colonies. Most post-war nationalist leaders had received a formal education in European Universities and it was here that they developed their ideas and their abilities to challenge their colonial rulers. Some nationalist leaders also served in the military or police forces of their colonial rulers and turned what they had learned against the colonial system. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s leaders emerged, in both Asia and Africa, who united and directed opposition against their colonial masters, peacefully or violently, until independence was granted. 5.1.4. Explain the factors that led to the decline of colonialism following World War II.(a) 58 (2) 3. Cost of maintaining colonies The promotion of colonial self-determination by

Europeans was not without self interest. The war had virtually bankrupted many European powers and the few resources that they had available to them at the wars conclusion, were to be directed to their own reconstruction and not towards supporting costly colonies. Most colonies had become financial sinkholes and this certainly fueled the drive towards self-government. 5.1.4. Explain the factors that led to the decline of colonialism following World War II.(a) 58 (2) 4. Views towards colonialism by the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R The United States supported independence movements for several reasons: Having won their own independence from their British colonial masters it was natural for Americans to support a colonial nation that was under the thumb of a colonial master. It also coincided with Americas desire to spread democracy and self-determination. The desire to spread democracy and self-determination also coincided

with Americas desire to win the hearts and minds of newly independent nations during the Cold War. If the United States was seen as the champion of colonial self government, these nations would be sympathetic to democracy as a political system and capitalism as their economic system of choice. The United States believed that the adoption of a free market economic system by newly independent nations would benefit America in two ways. First it would provide American industry with access to cheap raw materials and it would gain access to new export markets. Second, the adoption of a free market economic system would preclude the ex-colonies from becoming adherents of communism. 5.1.4. Explain the factors that led to the decline of colonialism following World War II.(a) 58 (2) The Soviet Union supported independence movements for these reasons: Communism is based on the idea of oppression of the working individual. MarxistLeninist doctrine advocated revolution of the oppressed in all societies and certainly colonial citizens fit this description. It saw support for colonial independence movements as a way of weakening

European powers during the Cold War period. The Soviet Union attempted to associate any economic association with the United States as simply colonialism in another form, in other words, economic colonialism. Economic colonialism as practiced by the western democracies, was really no different than the political colonialism practiced by the Europeans. One thing is certain, without the support of the USA and the USSR, it would have been more difficult for African states to break free from European domination.

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