BASICS OF TURBULENT FLOW A SMALL PRESENTATION Definition Turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime in fluid dynamics characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.

It is in contrast to a laminar flow regime, which occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between those layers. Causes Turbulence is commonly observed in everyday phenomena such as surf, fast flowing rivers, billowing storm clouds, or smoke from a chimney, and most fluid flows occurring in nature and created in engineering applications are turbulent. Turbulence is caused by excessive kinetic

energy in parts of a fluid flow, which overcomes the damping effect of the fluid's viscosity. In General Turbulence is easier to create in low viscosity fluids, but more difficult in highly viscous fluids. In general terms, in turbulent flow, unsteady vortices appear of many sizes which interact with each other, consequently drag due to friction effects increases.

This would increase the energy needed to pump fluid through a pipe, for instance. However this effect can also be exploited by devices such as aerodynamic spoilers on aircraft, which deliberately "spoil" the laminar flow to increase drag and reduce lift Prediction of Turbulence The onset of turbulence can be predicted by a dimensionless constant called the Reynolds number,

which calculates the balance between kinetic energy and viscous damping in a fluid flow. However, turbulence has long resisted detailed physical analysis, and the interactions within turbulence creates a very complex situation. Richard Feynman has described turbulence as the most important unsolved problem of classical physics. Examples of Turbulence

Smoke rising from a cigarette is mostly turbulent flow. However, for the first few centimeters the flow is laminar. The smoke plume becomes turbulent as its Reynolds number increases, due to its flow velocity and characteristic length increasing. Examples of Turbulence Flow over a golf ball. (This can be best understood by considering the golf ball to be stationary, with air flowing over it.) If the golf ball were

smooth, the boundary layer flow over the front of the sphere would be laminar at typical conditions. However, the boundary layer would separate early, as the pressure gradient switched from favorable (pressure decreasing in the flow direction) to unfavorable (pressure increasing in the flow direction), creating a large region of low pressure behind the ball that creates high form drag. To prevent this from happening, the surface is dimpled to perturb the boundary layer and promote transition to turbulence. This results in higher skin friction, but moves the point of boundary layer separation further along, resulting in

lower form drag and lower overall drag. Examples of Turbulence Clear-air turbulence experienced during airplane flight, as well as poor astronomical seeing (the blurring of images seen through the atmosphere.) Most of the terrestrial atmospheric circulation The oceanic and atmospheric mixed layers and intense oceanic currents. The flow conditions in many industrial equipment (such as pipes, ducts,

precipitators, gas scrubbers, dynamic scraped surface heat exchangers, etc.) and machines (for instance, internal combustion engines and gas turbines). Onset of Turbulence The onset of turbulence can be predicted by the Reynolds number, which is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces within a fluid which is subject to relative internal movement due to different fluid velocities, in what is known as a boundary layer in the case of a bounding surface

such as the interior of a pipe. A similar effect is created by the introduction of a stream of higher velocity fluid, such as the hot gases from a flame in air. This relative movement generates fluid friction, which is a factor in developing turbulent flow. Counteracting this effect is the viscosity of the fluid, which as it increases, progressively inhibits turbulence, as more kinetic energy is absorbed by a more viscous fluid. The Reynolds number quantifies the relative importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions, and is a guide to when turbulent flow will occur in a particular situation

Onset of Turbulence This ability to predict the onset of turbulent flow is an important design tool for equipment such as piping systems or aircraft wings, but the Reynolds number is also used in scaling of fluid dynamics problems, and is used to determine dynamic similitude between two different cases of fluid flow, such as between a model aircraft, and its full size version. Such scaling is not linear and the application of Reynolds numbers to both

situations allows scaling factors to be developed. A flow situation in which the kinetic energy is significantly absorbed due to the action of fluid molecular viscosity gives rise to a laminar flow regime VIDEO THANK YOU