Arterial Blood Sampling Also known as Arterial Blood Gas Sampling. ABG Indications To assess. Respiratory Status Assess oxygenation and ventillation
Acid Base Balance Phlebotomy. Used if venous route is unavailable or inaccessible due to trauma or burns. Usually a femoral puncture, uncommon variation. Contraindications Overlying infection or burn at insertion site. Absent collateral circulation. Arteriovenous shunt. Often radial or
brachial. Severe atherosclerosis Raynauds disease. Coagulopathy. Sites Preferred radial or femoral arteries. Less common. Dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial. Avoid. Branches without collateral supply. Example is the brachial artery.
Complications Bleeding causing hematoma. Arterial occlusion causing thrombus or dissection. Infection causing arteritis or cellulitis. Embolization Last 3 uncommon. Normal Values
pH, 7.36 to 7.44. For acid base status of blood. pCO2, 38 to 44 mmHg. Reflects ventillation. pO2, 85 to 95 mmHg. Reflects oxygenation. HCO3, 21 to 27 meq per litre. Key blood buffer. Base excess, plus or minus 2 meq per litre
Protective eye wear Iodine swab. Povidone-iodine, betadine. Followed by alcohol swab Arterial blood gas sampling kit 2 x 2 cm gauze Bag of ice. To store sample Allens Test
Indicates collateral circulation to hand. Radial artery on non dominant hand. Palpate radial artery. Simultaneouslys palpate ulnar artery, or as close to that area as possible. Patient makes a fist. Palpate both arteries for10 seconds. Release ulnar artery and witness blood flow and pinking of the hand via collateral radial artery
Radial artery is now a candidate for testing. Set Up Patient seated on stretcher Rolled up towel under wrist. That hyperextends wrist, bringing artery closer to surface. Clean area in a cicular motion with iodine. Allow to dry. Wipe away iodine with alcohol. While drying, open sampling kit.
Sampling Kit 3 pieces 1. Orange air ball or cube. Used to expel excess air from the syringe. 2. Black cap for syringe, used for transport. 3. 3 cc, cubic centimetres heparinised syringe. With needle attached.
Sampling Kit Use Pull back slightly on plunger, so once needle is in artery, natural pulsations will fill the syringe. Remove clear needle cap. Locate the bevel. Bevel is a slanted opening on one side of the needle tip. We want bevel facing upward, so you can see it. Syringe Use 45 degrees, sharper angle.
Hold like a dart or pen. Feeling pulse under non syringe finger is the only landmark for orientation. Before piercing skin, roll finger back slightly from artery, so you dont stab yourself in the finger. Flash of blood into hub of needle. Artery has been accessed. Blood will pulse into syringe. 1.5 to 2.0 cc required. Cover needle with gauze. Quickly remove needle. After Care
Physician applies pressure to gauze for 5 minutes. 10 minutes if patient is on anticoaggulant therapy. Optional to ask patient to do this instead. Blood Care Insert needle into orange air cube or ball. Want bevel covered, dont want needle to go through cube. Push down on plunger to expell excess air. So it doesnt affect results. Key point because we are measuring air component levels in blood.
Remove cube and needle as one. Attach black cap to syringe. Roll test tube between hands, to ensure blood heparinisation. Place in iced bag. Send to lab. Needle and cube to sharps container. Video http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=stxntv0KkBE
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