Applied Fieldwork Enquiry Urban Table A: fieldwork methodologies Fieldwork locality Urban Use of transects (across a feature) Assess quality of life or environmental quality across an urban area Study land use changes across a city Investigate the edge of the CBD/ central area Investigate pollution away from a motorway (or similar) using indicators such as noise, air quality and lichens Investigate the vegetation succession in an urban wasteland ecosystem Investigate the impacts of international migration
Change over time (comparing primary data with secondary sources) Changing land use over time in an urban environment (for example brownfield site), using maps and other data for historic comparisons Changing patterns of retailing compare current retail patterns to historic data from a previous year Investigate the impacts of pedestrianisation or redevelopment in a town using historic maps/data Investigate the impacts of international migration, comparing present day with historic data Qualitative surveys (analysing perception) Geographical flows (analysing flows and patterns of movement) Investigate environmental quality of urban environments Investigate commuter
movements in a town Investigate the impacts of an urban green space (or urban wasteland ecosystem) on the local community Investigate traffic or pedestrian flows, for example relating pedestrian flows in a retail environment to parking provision in an urban area or identifying the best route for a cycle path Investigate the sense of place of an urban area Investigate the effects of a football ground (or similar) on the local environment Investigate the impacts of pedestrianisation or redevelopment in a town Investigate crime and vandalism in a town or city Investigate the impacts of international migration Investigate the impacts of
international migration Table B: conceptual frameworks Geographical theme Urban Place Sphere of influence Applying understanding of uniqueness / identity Comparing two urban environments (environmental quality, sense of place, impacts of international migration, etc) Comparing the quality of life in two neighbourhoods Cycles and flows
Mitigating risk Sustainability Inequality Applying understanding of sphere of influence / catchment and how it impacts on places Applying understanding of change and movement in relation to place Applying understanding of hazard perception / risk and analysing management strategies / future actions Applying understanding of sustainable communities Applying understanding of inequality and associated concepts such as deprivation or equality of access
to services Identifying the sphere of influence of an urban area (retailing, employment, entertainment, green space, etc) and assessing its impacts on the hinterland Migration survey which focuses on push-pull factors and their impacts in urban locations Study urban land use and its impact on infiltration / interception/flood risk Investigating the impacts of a pedestrianisation scheme or park and ride scheme Investigating how positive and negative externalities impact on standard of living in urban or rural environments
Investigating diurnal flows within urban environments and the effects for example, on transport systems, the environment, etc Study of commuter flows between an urban and neighbouring rural location Investigating air quality in an urban area, its impact and Investigating the management options effectiveness of an existing or planned Investigating peoples community perceptions of crime and risk to meet requirements of in a town Egans wheel Investigating sustainable ways to manage the journey to school for example, the best route for a new cycle route to school Investigating possible
sustainable uses of a brownfield site (link with urban wasteland ecosystem) Comparing access to services in rural and urban communities within the hinterland of one large urban area Evaluating quality of life for a named socio-economic group (for example, young families) in one community Assessing quality of the urban environment and its impact on house prices across an urban transect Evaluating the success of an urban regeneration scheme in reducing deprivation WJEC nominated criteria Table A: Methodologies Table B: Conceptual framework
2018: Geographical flows 2018: Cycles and flows 2019: Qualitative surveys 2020: Use of transects 2019: Place 2020: Sphere of Influence The six stages of the enquiry process Ask questions Evaluate the process Collect data Process & present data Draw conclusions Analysis and application of wider
understanding Enquiry 1: Ask questions What effect has the new shopping development had on the town? Does environmental quality vary in the town? Is there a change in land use with distance from the town centre? How is traffic managed in the town? How has pedestrianisation affected the development of the town?
IMG 8530 IMG 8502 Enquiry 2: Collecting data Remember that for one of your two investigations, one of your data collection methods must be that nominated by WJEC from Table A The second investigation must be underpinned by the nominated conceptual framework (Table B) You can use additional methods of data collection as you wish Remember that fieldwork is an excellent way to practice geographical skills Enquiry 2: Urban methodologies Fieldwork
locality Use of transects (across a feature) (2020 exam) Urban Assess quality of life or environmental quality across an urban area (complete an EIA and use annotated photos or field sketches) Change over time (comparing primary data with secondary sources) Qualitative surveys (analysing perception) (2019 exam) Changing land use over time in an urban environment (for example brownfield site), using maps and other data for historic comparisons (plot land use and compare with historic maps/photos)
Investigate environmental quality of urban environments Investigate the edge of the CBD/central area (consider changes in land use, building height, pedestrians) Changing patterns of retailing comparing current retail patterns to historic data from a previous year (record current shopping patterns and compare with secondary data) Investigate the sense of place of an urban area Investigate pollution away from a motorway (or similar) using indicators such as noise, air quality and lichens (use instruments or lichen indicator chart) Investigate the impacts of pedestrianisation or redevelopment in a town using historic maps/ data (conduct questionnaires, use photos to compare with historic)
Investigate the vegetation succession in an urban wasteland ecosystem (use quadrats and observation chart) Investigate the impacts of international migration, comparing present day with historic data (use of old maps, census data, photos and questionnaires) Study land use changes across a city (plot land uses on a base map) Investigate the impacts of international migration (use questionnaires and observe land uses) Investigate the impacts of an urban green space (or urban wasteland ecosystem) on the local community Investigate the effects of a football ground (or similar) on the local environment Investigate the impacts of pedestrianisation or redevelopment in a town Investigate crime and vandalism in
a town or city Investigate the impacts of international migration (use of qualitative measures such as EIAs, questionnaires, bi-polar charts and photos together with GIS data) Geographical flows (analysing flows and patterns of movement) (2018 exam) Investigate commuter movements in a town (record traffic flows) Investigate traffic or pedestrian flows, for example relating pedestrian flows in a retail environment to parking provision in an urban area or identifying best route for a cycle path (record traffic flows, conduct questionnaires) Investigate the impacts of international migration (use questionnaires and observe land uses)
Enquiry 2: Carmarthen Consider what methodologies could be used here to Enquiry 2: Carmarthen Consider what methodologies could be used here to Enquiry 2: Collecting data Design appropriate fieldwork data collecting sheets Select appropriate locations (safety risk assessment - ease of access, geographically sound) Select appropriate sampling techniques (random, systematic, stratified)
Ensure accuracy and reliability Remember that students will need to justify methodologies Enquiry 3: Processing and presenting Processing data This involves making calculations from the data sheet and could involve: Calculating flow rates of traffic or pedestrians Calculating EIA scores Converting data into percentages (e.g. lichen indicators, vegetation quadrats, questionnaires) Comparative statistical measures (e.g. percentage change) for census or crime data Enquiry 3: Processing and presenting
Presenting data This involves selecting appropriate methods to present data and could include Composite (divided) (divided) bar bar graphs, graphs, e.g. e.g. showing showing land land use use Composite change change Enquiry 3: Processing and presenting Presenting data This involves selecting appropriate methods to present data and could include Use GIS to plot land uses onto a base map Enquiry 3: Processing and presenting Presenting data This involves selecting appropriate methods to present data and could include
Use GIS to plot cycle management onto a base map Enquiry 3: Processing and presenting Presenting data This involves selecting appropriate methods to present data and could include Radar graph, pie chart and flow map Enquiry 3: Processing and presenting Presenting data This involves selecting appropriate methods to present data and could include Use a program such as Wordle to present qualitative data https://www.geography-fieldwork.org/gcse/urban/cbd/data-presen tation/ Annotated photo showing a traditional shopping street in Carmarthen Older traditional shopping street, with relatively small independent shops
One-way street Shopping street popular with a range of ages Hanging baskets to improve environmental quality Double yellow lines indicate traffic management Enquiry 4: Analysing and wider understanding Identify, analyse and interpret trends and patterns Apply knowledge and understanding of geographical concepts and processes to specific evidence collected
Trends changes over time, distance, etc. Patterns regular repeating distributions, e.g. linear, radial, circular Enquiry 4: Describing data When describing trends and patterns consider using the acronym GCSE: GC general comment, describing the big picture, the overall trends and patterns S refer to specific information/data on the graphs, maps and diagrams to support your comments E identify and comment on any exceptions (anomalies) to the overall trend/pattern Enquiry 4: Analysing data The divided bar graph shows that there is a significant change in land use with distance from the town centre. Close to the town centre there is a dominance of retailing (58%) and consumer services (35%). The percentage of these two land uses decreases significantly to about 14% at 8001-1000 metres from the town centre. The dominance of retailing and consumer services close to the town centre reflects the
development historic Residential land use of the town around its central most accessible point. increases towards the edge of the town to reach a maximum of about 80% at 1001-1200 metres from the town centre. Here land was available for building and was not too expensive. Enquiry 5: Drawing conclusions This involves synthesising (pulling together) findings to reach evidenced conclusions that relate to the initial aim of the enquiry. Heres an example: In conclusion, my results clearly show that land use changes with distance from the town centre. The town centre is dominated by retailing and consumer services, which accounts for over 90% of the land use. Both land uses decrease with distance from the town centre to be replaced by a dominance of residential, which increases significantly from 1000 metres. These
changes reflect a number of factors such as accessibility, economic activity, historical development and political management decisions. It is not possible to directly relate the pattern of land use to the urban models, which tend to be oversimplified. Enquiry 5: Drawing conclusions Expected trends and models are not always reflected in the real world, for example: Land use models, such as the Burgess Model, are highly simplified and relate to American planned cities Urban management has greatly altered the land use in towns, particularly the regeneration of town centres Having developed largely unplanned for hundreds of years, towns in the UK often have mixed land uses with no obvious patterns
Multi-storey buildings often have several land uses (retail, office and residential) land use maps tend to focus on ground floor only, giving a rather inaccurate impression Enquiry 5: Drawing conclusions Access may be limited to parts of the town due to road works or urban regeneration Infrequent events, such as festivals may give unexpected and unrepresentative results Some towns were severely damaged in WW2, wiping out historical patterns Weather conditions, time of day and time of year will affect peoples behaviour and may give unexpected results Enquiry 6: Evaluating
the process Identify the limitations of geographical evidence accuracy, reliability and bias Reflect critically on the strengths and limitations of both primary and secondary data, methods used, conclusions drawn and knowledge gained Appreciate that stakeholders may have vested interests, introducing bias. Enquiry 6: Evaluating the process How might your results be different on another day or at a different time of year (local people or tourists)? How might an increase in the sample size or the number of sites have improved reliability?
With practice, might data collection techniques have been more accurate? Was the sampling strategy appropriate? Could inaccurate diagram construction have affected your conclusions?
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