APHG REVIEW UNIT 5: AGRICULTURAL GEOGRAPHY KEY TERMS AGRIBUSINESS
The set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes. It includes activities ranging from seed production, to retailing, to consumption of agricultural products. AGRICULTURE
The art and science of producing food from the land and tending livestock for the purpose of human consumption. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
An agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats. AQUACULTURE The cultivation or farming (in controlled conditions) of aquatic species, such as
fish. In contrast to commercial fishing, which involves catching wild fish. BIOTECHNOLOGY A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes to modify products, to make or modify plants and
animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes. CAPITAL-INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE A form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery,
tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods- a process requiring very little human labor. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY
All agricultural activity generated for the purpose of selling, not necessarily for local consumption. COMMODITY CHAINS A linked system of processes that gather resources, convert them into goods,
package them for distribution, disperse them, and sell them on the market. DAIRYING An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such
as milk, cheese, and butter. DESERTIFICATION The process by which formerly fertile lands become increasingly arid, unproductive, and desert-like.
DOMESTICATION The conscious manipulation of plant and animal species by humans in order to sustain themselves. EXTENSIVE AGRICULTURE
An agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area. FEEDLOTS Place where livestock are concentrated in a very small area and raised on
hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to as factory farms. FOOD SECURITY Peoples ability to access sufficient,
safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS Foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes
altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability, and efficiency. GREEN REVOLUTION
The development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe. HORIZONTAL
INTEGRATION A form of corporate organization in which several branches of a company or several commonly owned companies work together to sell their products in different markets.
HUNTING & GATHERING The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance. INTENSIVE CULTIVATION
Any kind of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield. LABOR-INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE
Type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful. LIVESTOCK RANCHING An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of
livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West. MECHANIZATION In agriculture, the replacement of human labor with technology or
machines. MEDITERRANEAN AGRICULTURE An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile
and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, olives, and a host of nuts, fruits, and vegetables comprise profitable agricultural operations. ORGANIC AGRICULTURE
The use of crop rotation, natural fertilizers such as manure, and biological pest control- as opposed to artificial fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, antibiotics, additives, and genetically modified organisms- to promote healthy, vigorous crops. PASTORALISM
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter. PESTICIDES
Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals. PLANNED AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY
An agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the government controls both agricultural production and distribution. PLANTATION
A large, frequently foreign-owned piece of agriculture land devoted to the production of a single export crop. SALINIZATION Process the occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation
through irrigation by brackish water. In arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile. SHIFTING CULTIVATION The use of tropical forest clearings for
crop production until their fertility is lost. Plots are then abandoned, and farmers move on to new sites. SLASH-AND-BURN AGRICULTURE System of cultivation that usually exists
in topical areas where vegetation is cut close to the ground and then ignited. The fire introduces nutrients into the soil, thereby making it productive for a relatively short period of time. SPECIALTY CROPS
Crops including items like peanuts and pineapples, which are produced, usually in developing countries, for export. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY Any farm economy in which most crops
are grown for nearly exclusive family or local consumption. SWIDDEN Land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash-and-burn method.
TRANSHUMANCE The movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the summer. VERTICAL INTEGRATION
A form of corporate organization in which one firm controls multiple aspects or phases of a commodity chain. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
SECTION 1: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF AGRICULTURE 1. The first agriculturalists were A. commercial farmers. B. European entrepreneurs. C. also hunter-gathers. D. also ranchers. E. most likely males.
SECTION 1: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF AGRICULTURE 2. Slash-and-burn agriculture is A. not sustainable. B. practiced in high, mountainous regions. C. typical for tropical forests. D. a relatively new invention. E. always completely sustainable.
SECTION 1: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF AGRICULTURE 3. The Industrial Revolution transformed Western agriculture A. through mechanization and the creation of new markets. B. with biotechnology. C. through technological and religious
change. D. by eliminating agricultural pests. E. by eliminating plant hybridization. SECTION 1: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF AGRICULTURE 4. The Green Revolution greatly increased crop production in some countries A. without adverse side effects.
B. as a replacement for deindustrialization. C. with some adverse side effects. D. by encouraging the cultivation of local crop varieties. E. by introducing organic agricultural methods. SECTION 1: HISTORICAL
GEOGRAPHY OF AGRICULTURE 5. Which of the following was NOT a location of independent plant and animal domestication? A. India B. Iraq C. California D. China E. Peru
SECTION 1: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF AGRICULTURE 6. Ranching is a good example of which type of agricultural system? A. Intensive subsistence cultivation B. Extensive commercial cultivation C. Labor-intensive agriculture D. Capital-intensive agriculture
E. Controlled agriculture SECTION 2: GEOGRAPHY OF MODERN AGRICULTURE 1. The modern global geography of agriculture is determined by A. climate. B. soil. C. cultural traditions.
D. all of the above E. Only A and B SECTION 2: GEOGRAPHY OF MODERN AGRICULTURE 2. According to von Thunen, the regional geography of agriculture is determined by A. land area.
B. rent. C. urban marketing. D. availability of material inputs. E. climate. SECTION 2: GEOGRAPHY OF MODERN AGRICULTURE 3. _____ is (are) widespread in semiarid climates throughout the world.
A. Ranching B. Tropical plantations C. Dairying D. Slash-and-burn agriculture E. Rice paddies SECTION 2: GEOGRAPHY OF MODERN AGRICULTURE 4. The effects of biotechnology
A. are positive because it allows for much greater agricultural yields. B. are negative because its expense limits its availability to all farmers across the globe. C. are unknown because very little research has been conducted on them. D. All of the above E. None of the above
SECTION 2: GEOGRAPHY OF MODERN AGRICULTURE 5. Agribusiness has had all of the following effects on agriculture, EXCEPT A. the farm is no longer the center of agricultural activity. B. TNCs often control agricultural activity abroad. C. family farmers, through increasing technology,
are producing goods for the global economy. D. agriculture had become a multilevel process of production, processing, marketing, and consumption. E. some corporations essentially dictate agricultural production in other countries besides their own. SECTION 3: AGRICULTURE
AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1.In arid climates, like southern California and the Middle East, _____ can cause the soil to become salty and infertile. A. erosion B. topsoil loss C. salinization D. saltation E. droughts
SECTION 3: AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT 2. _____ is a common cause of decreasing farmland in rapidly growing urban areas. A. Urban sprawl B. Topsoil loss C. Loss of material inputs D. Industrialization
E. Agribusiness SECTION 3: AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT 3. DDT is an example of a _____ that has had negative effects all the way through the food chain. A. herbicide B. pesticide
C. bacteria D. fungicide E. genetically modified organism SECTION 3: AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT 4. Soil specialists must work to overcome the negative effects of ________ associated with agricultural production.
A. fertilization and salinization B. pesticides and fertilization C. salinization and topsoil loss D. topsoil loss and gentrification E. the Green Revolution and agribusiness FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS
SECTION 1: HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY AND AGRICULTURE 1. The Industrial Revolutions impacts extended beyond industry to other areas of the economy. A. Describe how the Industrial Revolution affected modern agricultural production. B. What are some of the positive and
negative effects of industrial agriculture? SECTION 2: GEOGRAPHY OF MODERN AGRICULTURE 1. Current agricultural systems differ dramatically from agricultural production just 50 years ago. A. What are some of the driving forces behind the worlds current agricultural
system? B. What are some benefits and disadvantages of global-scale agricultural production? SECTION 3: AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1. Modern agricultural production necessarily involves benefits and
disadvantages. A. Describe some of the inputs in the modern agricultural system. B. What are the environmental implications of modern agriculture?
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