APC presentation - Feb. 2006

APC presentation - Feb. 2006

2nd Joint HiLumi LHC-LARP Annual Meeting INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati Frascati, Italy, November 14th-16th, 2012 LHC Collimation Status and Plans Stefano Redaelli, CERN, BE-ABP on behalf of the LHC Collimation Project and HiLumi WP5 The HiLumi LHC Design Study is included in the High Luminosity LHC project and is partly funded by the European Commission within the Framework Programme 7 Capacities Specific Programme, Grant Agreement 284404. Outline Introduction LHC collimation status Collimation after LS1 HiLumi-WP5 activities Conclusions S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 2 Introduction Crucial role of collimation for the future LHC performance: Cleaning performance might determine the maximum beam intensity;

Collimators define the machine impedance at high energy; The collimation hierarchy determines that * reach; Collimator setup has an impact on the operational efficiency; Role in the radiation optimization and machine protection. The re-design of the collimation system has therefore been integral part of the design study for HL-LHC since the early phase. Different studies and ongoing programs: CERN LHC Collimation project: Overall responsibility of LHC collimation, including operation, performance monitoring and optimization, remote handling, improvements of present system, FP7 HiLumi WP5: Design of collimation in the interaction regions, upgrade for cleaning. FP7 EuCARD/EuCARD2: New materials and new collimator design concepts. Strong and long-standing external collaborations: US-LARP, HIEP, Kurchatov, Fermilab (energy deposition),... S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 3 Goals of collimation upgrades Collimation upgrade studies comprise different aspects: Improve the cleaning performance in cold regions - Highest losses: dispersion suppressors of IR3/7 and experimental IR1/2/5 Improve the impedance and robustness - State-of-the-art new material and new designs for secondary collimator jaws - Compatibility with failure cases and improved robustness at critical locations (TCTs)

Enhance the operational efficiency / machine protection aspects - Improve the beta* reach and and flexibility of IR configuration - Faster and more accurate collimator alignment Improve the collimator layouts in the experimental regions - Better cleaning of incoming beam and outgoing physics products Optimize location and distributions of losses - Improve lifetime of warm magnets - Confine losses in dedicated regions, optimize doses to equipment/personnel Be ready to replace collimators if they break or age - The hardware is designed for 10 y lifetime Achieve remote handling in high radiation environment First step: understand the possible - Quick collimator replacement in hottest LHC locations limitations of LHC performance New injection / dump collimation Injection&dump team from the collimation. S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 4

HL-LHC timeline ~ Nominal energy and Luminosity L. Rossi S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 Double the LHC luminosity ~ 3000 fb-1! Different studies ongoing to ensure that the collimation system is ready for the different HL phases! 5 Outline Introduction LHC collimation status Collimation after LS1 HiLumi-WP5 activities Conclusions S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 6

LHC performance 2011: 3.5 TeV, * = 1.0 m, ~110 MJ (1380 bunches at 50 ns) 2012: 4.0 TeV, * = 0.6 m, ~140 MJ (1380 bunches at 50 ns) 2011 2012 80 % of 7 TeV design 2011 No quench with circulating beam, with stored energies up to 70 times of previous state-of-the-art! S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 The collimator system performance is a crucial ingredient in this achievement! 7 m .2 +0 0m 1.

r pe ta ing S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 8 Requirements to handle 360 MJ Main collimation challenges: - High stored energy: - Small gaps: - Collimator hierarchy: - Machine protection: - High-radiation environ.: R. Assmann et al. (2003) S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 Collimators needed in all phases (inj., ramp, squeeze, physics); Function-driven controls of jaw positions mandatory; Robustness and cleaning efficiency; Big and distributed system (100 collimators). Mechanical precision, reproducibility (< 20 microns); Constraints on orbit/optics reproducibility; Machine impedance and beam instabilities.

Collimators determine the LHC * reach. Redundant interlocks of collimator jaw positions and gaps. Radiation-hard components (HW + SW); Challenging remote handling, design for quick installation. A staged approach was adopted to cope with conflicting requirements. 9 LHC collimation layout Two warm cleaning insertions IR3: Momentum cleaning 1 primary (H) 4 secondary (H,S) 4 shower abs. (H,V) IR7: Betatron cleaning 3 primary (H,V,S) 11 secondary (H,V,S) 5 shower abs. (H,V) Local cleaning at triplets 8 tertiary (2 per IP) per beam Physics debris absorption 2 TCL (1 per beam in IR1/5) 8 passive absorbers for warm magnets in IR3/7. Transfer lines (13 collimators)

Injection and dump protection (10) Total of 108 collimators (100 movable). Picture by C. Bracco S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 10 Collimation cleaning 3600 beam loss monitors (BLMs) along the 27 km during a loss map IP7: Betatron cleaning Beam 1 What is going on there? S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012

11 Collimation cleaning: 4.0 TeV, =0.6 m * Betatron Local cleaning inefficiency Beam 1 Dump Off-momentum TCTs 1/10000 TCTs TCTs 0.00001 TCTs 0.000001 B. Salvachua

S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 Highest COLD loss location: efficiency of > 99.99% ! Most of the ring actually > 99.999% 12 Losses in IR7: 4.0 TeV, =0.6 m * 1/10000 B. Salvachua Critical location (both beams): losses in the dispersion suppressor (Q8) from single diffractive interactions with the primary collimators. With squeezed beams: tertiary collimators (TCTs) protect locally the triplets. S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 13 Stability of cleaning performance Cleaning inefficiency at limiting location (Q8) Cleaning versus time in 2012 B. Salvachua

Date of validating loss maps Excellent stability of cleaning performance observed! Achieved with only 1 alignment per year in IR3/6/7 (2x30 collimators). Operational strategy: Unfrequent alignments and regular validation campaigns for the collimator cleaning and hierarchy (loss maps) Monitoring of standard physics fills + periodic dedicated loss maps New alignments are needed for new physics configurations Changes optics or orbit, Van der Meer scans, spectrometer polarity, ... S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 14 Comparison: 2011 vs 2012 2011 2012 The local cleaning in the IR7 DSs was improved by a factor ~5 compared to 2011, thanks to the deployment of collimator tight settings. (TCP settings equivalent to 7 TeV nominal gaps). Drawbacks: we are now dealing with larger losses in standard operation: tail removal during ramp and beam instabilities from larger impedance! S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 15 4 TeV physics settings in millimeters

2011 1.05 mm from the 140 MJ beam! S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 2012 16 Losses from luminosity debris Proton operation in 2012 Proton operation in 2011 Q4/Q6 Q8 Q9 Ongoing program (beam measurements + tracking and energy deposition simulations) to understand the present losses from luminosity debris! What can we do with the existing physics debris collimators (TCLs) to protect matching sections and dispersion suppressors? feedback on layout of experimental regions already for LS1 (see next talks). S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 17

Lead ion beam at 3.5 TeV (2011) Beam 1 Ion cleaning ~ a few % 1/100 (100 times worst than p) Off-momentum TCTs Dump Betatron Arc 78 TCTs 0.00001 TCTs Legend: Collimators Cold losses Warm losses S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012

0.000001 See next talk by J. Jowett 18 Outline Introduction LHC collimation status Collimation after LS1 HiLumi-WP5 activities Conclusions S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 19 Collimation operational experience Very good performance of the collimation system so far (up to 140MJ): - Validated all critical design choices (HW, SW, interlocking, ...); - Cleaning close to simulations and ok for operation after LS1; - We learned that we can rely on the machine stability! - Established and improved semi-automatic alignment tools; - Performance estimates based on 2011 quench tests - to be reviewed after 2012 run Analysis of losses + quench tests at 4 TeV in Feb. 2013. The present LHC collimation cannot protect the cold dispersion suppressors.

- Critical locations with present layout: IR7, IR1/5, IR2 (ions). HiLumi - Investigations ongoing on limitations from quench and magnet lifetime. Starts already - Rich program on dream materials and new collimator concepts. in LS1 The collimators determine the LHC impedance Collimation alignments and validation of new setting are time-consuming. The operation flexibility in the experimental regions (VdM scans, spectrometer polarity changes, * leveling, ...) is affected by collimation constraints. The * reach is determined by collimation constraints: retraction between beam dump and horizontal TCTs which are not robust. Collimator handling in radiation environment will be challenging. S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 20 New collimators with integrated BPMs 16 Tungsten TCTs in all IRs and the 2 Carbon TCSGs in IR6 will be replaced by new collimators with integrated BPMs. Gain: can align the collimator jaw without touching the beam no dedicated low-intensity fills. no dedicated low-intensity fills. Drastically reduced setup time => more flexibility in IR configurations Reduced orbit margins in cleaning hierarchy => more room to squeeze *: 35 cm (R. Bruce)

Solid experimental validation of this concept from SPS beam tests (2010-2012) These new collimators replace the existing collimators (minor vacuum layout changes in IR8) no dedicated low-intensity fills. No changes of the present layout, improved collimator setup in all IRs. Other improvements are foreseen in different IRs: warm magnet protection, TCL layout IR1/5 Collimator centred to 10 um in less than 20 seconds with 20mm full gap! G. Valentino/M. for the BPM Gasior buttons collimation and BI teams Courtesy O. Aberle, A. Bertarelli, F. Carra, A. Dallocchio, L. Gentini et al. S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 21 Intensity reach from collimation cleaning The performance reach does not only depend on the collimation cleaning! Minimum (assumed) beam lifetime LHC total intensity reach

from collimation: Quench limit of SC magnets Collimation cleaning at limiting cold location Protons: > 1.5 x nominal ions t a e g h i t t or Ions: 5-25 x nominal s e ! t i v 2 n n toolimit!01 i

Ions (L debris) closer 2 e m u n n o si i t t n nd ter o c sa e o t Caveats/assumptions: t m i l a a r m i i a

l c - So far, we did NOT quench Figures for Rq areuconservative p h t r c n smaller * c n a - It is assumed that the lifetime will be the same at larger E and s t i que elev I - The losses were achieved only during short n r1 s r o times e h t - There are uncertainties on quench limit and cleaning performance at larger E

o Preliminary 7 TeV performance estimate based on ACHIEVED loss rates at 3.5 TeV (500 kW for protons, 27 kW for ions) S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 22 DS upgrade in cleaning insertions 1. Catch local losses in the dispersion suppressor (DS): two DS collimators beam cle Exper termoving - Layout change of athe DS: nin nal g in re dipoles to createaspace; dd vie Th s e rcollimators.

e w e r New design of warm t s i ion in no m s A. Bertarelli of the e p J t lo s d o po une by EN-MME team st rtan s t

2 t h t 0 p w e htt 1 o c o f 2. Combine momentum/betatron 1 o ps n i r r n k ://i s e c

t d nd o e P e : re DS n i co pt by adding x cleaning IP3 5 o .ce rin p w c a e a rn. tot in t o l r

r i ch u y n m e p pper /co e n h vertical collimators led beam e c e nfe ing c d e o ren s a l

w h d w il c t - Standard technology ofsPhase I. a eD i t c 7 h isp o l T c b l t l l ay h o

e i e - Essentially using existing slots. m e n .py V tinu 11 ato . ?c o - New production chain for building n fI r i T d= ed dip s 15 . the missing collimators. 54 o le 08 #2 ! 01

1 -10 05 2010: Details: Review of DS work, -July http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=100156 S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 23 Prototyping of cryostat by-pass S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 D. Duarte Ramos 24 Lifetime during LHC operational cycle Couple of illustrative examples taken randomly from the LHC elogbook... Physics Ramp + Squeeze + Adjust

Injection Ramp Squeeze Adjust Physics S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 25 Example: squeeze losses 2011/2012 2012 operational experience is being reviewed. Quench tests in Feb. 2013 will provide required inputs for more reliable performance reach estimates. B. Salvachua S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 26 Outline

Introduction LHC collimation status Collimation after LS1 HiLumi-WP5 activities and beyond Conclusions S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 27 HiLumi WP5 tasks WP 5.1: Coordination & Communication To coordinate and schedule work package tasks To monitor work progress and inform the project management and work package participants To follow up the WP budget and use of resources To prepare internal and deliverable reports WP 5.2: IR Simulations of Halo Loss Assess locations and magnitudes of halo loss in the IRs for various upgrade scenarios (includes crab cavities, ATS, ...). Assess impact of imperfections. WP 5.3: IR Simulations of Energy Deposition Assess locations and magnitudes of energy deposition in the IRs for various upgrade scenarios. Assess impact of imperfections. WP 5.4: Design of IR Collimation Study required collimation to keep losses at the same level or below before the upgrade. Integration of collimators, new layout and optics.

Feed-forward to simulation WPs. S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 28 Deliverables M12: Set up of models and implementation of upgrade optics. M24: Assessment of beam halo losses in various upgrade scenarios (includes crab cavities, ATS, ). M36: Definition of new IR collimation solution. M42: Verification of new IR collimation solution in simulations. Possible iteration in design. M48: Final report. Focus of studies must clearly be based on the observed system limitations! S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 29 Required simulation environment Incoming halo Quench, background, machine protection Physics debris

Quench matching section and disp. suppressors Standard optics Impact on LS2 works HL optics layouts Implementation in LS3 Setup for proton and ion simulations Primary goal: Do we need dispersion suppressor collimations in LS2? Complementary simulation setups: Tracking (Sixtrack, Merlin) and detailed energy deposition (FLUKA). Collimation limitations for the LHC * reach. Strong link to LHC operation/MD studies: benchmarking and code validation S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 30 Agendas of WP5 collimation sessions

S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 31 Second session on Thu. morning US-LARP collimation activities - Status of SLAC RC collimator. - Tevatron hollow e-lens usage at CERN. - New proposal on material irradiation studies at BNL. Material studies at CERN - FP7 activities within EuCARD and EuCARD2. Status of crystal studies for collimation: - UA9 status and options for beam tests at the LHC. S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 32 Conclusions The performance of the LHC collimation system was reviewed. - Considered runs of 2010/11/12, with focus on the 2012 operation (up to 7.7x1033 cm-2s-1). The LHC and its collimation system work well (~140 MJ, up to 4 TeV) - Cleaning inefficiency below a few 0.0001, stable during one whole run. - Improved semi-automatic alignment tools were deployed. - Tighter collimator settings allowed a *=60cm (we are now at 77% of 7TeV design lumi).

Collimation system upgrades are already taking place in LS1 to address some of the observed limitations! The path for the HL-LHC will be addressed by a project review in spring 2012. - Full review of 2012 operational experience and system limitations; - basic decisions on the road maps for dispersion suppressor collimators. - System improvements for implementation in 2018 and 2021 (LS2 and LS3) will be finalized after first experience at ~7 TeV (2015). The Hi-Lumi WP5 scope was reviewed. These activities proceeded well in this first year. More work ahead will provide essential inputs! S. Redaelli, HiLumi-LARP, 20-09-2012 33

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