AP Chem

AP Chem

AP Chem Get Integrated Rate Law HW checked Important Dates: Iodine Clock Lab Write-Up due Fri 12/7 Unit 5 Review Quiz (Kinetics) ~ Fri 12/7 Today:

Reaction Mechanisms Balanced Equations vs. Reaction Mechanisms A balanced equation for a chemical reaction indicates the substances present at the start of the reaction and those present at the end of the reaction. A

reaction mechanism describes the steps by which a reaction occurs. Remember: Rate laws can only be determined experimentally, NOT from coefficients in the reaction. If you know the reaction mechanism, you can determine the rate law. Elementary Reactions

Reactions may occur all at once or through several steps known as elementary reactions. An elementary reaction is a chemical reaction in which one or more chemical species react directly to form products in a single step.

Molecularity-the number of molecules that participate as reactants in an elementary reaction. Types of Elementary Reactions Unimolecular involves only a single molecule

Overall 1st order reaction Types of Elementary Reactions Bimolecular involves the collision of two reactant molecules Overall 2nd order reaction Types of Elementary Reactions

Termolecular involves the simultaneous collision of 3 reactant molecules; this is rare. Overall 3rd order reaction Multi-Step Mechanisms The net change represented by a balanced chemical equation often occurs by a multistep mechanism consisting of a sequence of elementary reactions. The

following reaction proceeds in two elementary reactions/steps: Step 1: NO2 + NO2 NO3 + NO Step 2: NO3 + CO NO2 + CO2 The chemical equations for the elementary reactions in a multistep mechanism must always add to give the chemical equation of the overall process:

NO2 + CO NO + CO2 NO2 + CO NO + CO2 Because NO3 is neither a reactant nor a product of the overall chemical reactionit is formed in one elementary reaction and consumed in the nextit is called an intermediate.

Practice Practice Multi-Step Mechanisms In a multistep process, each elementary step of the mechanism has its own rate constant and activation energy. One

of the steps will be slower than all others. The overall reaction cannot occur faster than this slowest step, known as the rate-determining step. The rate law for a reaction is based on the rate-determining step (slowest step).

Reactions with a Slow Initial Step (These are the easier problems) step 1. This step is a bimolecular process, so the order of The rate-determining step is this reaction is

2nd order. The rate law for the overall reaction is just the rate law for the slow, rate-determining elementary reaction and can therefore be written as Rate = k[NO2]2. Experiments

can be done to confirm that [CO] does not in fact affect the reaction rate (and therefore is not included in the rate law). Practice Practice Reactions with a Fast Initial Step (These are the trickier ones) It is less straightforward to derive

the rate law for a mechanism in which an intermediate is a reactant in the rate-determining step. This situation arises in multistep mechanisms when the first step is fast and therefore not the ratedetermining step. Because step 2 is the rate-determining step, the rate law for that step governs the rate of the overall reaction and would be written as

Rate = k2[NOBr2][NO] . However, NOBr2 is an intermediate and not part of the overall reaction. Therefore, we need to substitute for NoBr2 in the rate law equations. Substituting for the Intermediate You can assume step 1 is in equilibrium; the forward and reverse reactions of step

1 are occurring at the same rate. Set these rates equal to each other: Rearrange to solve for NoBr2 Substituting for the Intermediate

Rate Law involving the intermediate: Rate = k2[NOBr2][NO] Substitute law into the rate

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