Anatomy / Physiology Topics

Anatomy / Physiology Topics

Unit 12: Animal Structure and Function, Part A Chapters 40-44 Part A-Structure and Function Thermoregulation Digestive System Respiratory System Circulatory System Immune System

Excretory System Nervous System Muscular System Endocrine System Part B-Repro. and Development

Sexual Characteristics Human Reproductive Anatomy Gametogenesis Hormonal Control of Reproduction Embryonic Development Factors That Influence Development

Introduction Recall that animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes that obtain their energy/nutrition by ingesting other organisms. Our focus shifts to understanding why and how animals are so successful in so many habitats. Animals are really just a complex system of cells working in a coordinated manner to monitor changing external conditions while maintaining a constant internal environment.

Introduction (contd) To accomplish these tasks animal cells are organized into systems that are specialized for particular functions. These functions are properties that emerge from the specific shape and order of the given body parts. Two major themes are exhibited by animals in this unit: capacity to adjust over the long term to the environment by adaptation due to natural selection

capacity to adjust to the environment over the short term by physiological responses 4 objectives for this introduction: identify the hierarchy of structural order in animals describe the importance of energetics explain how body forms affect interactions with the external environment analyze how regulation maintains favorable

internal conditions Levels of Structural Organization Cell ---> Tissue ---> Organ ---> Systems Tissues: groups of cells w/ common fxn. Organs: organized tissues that function together Organ systems: several organs with separate functions that act in a coordinated manner

Types of tissues epithelial tissue (outer skin layers and internal protective coverings) connective tissue (bone, cartilage, blood, adipose, loose and fibrous) ** nervous tissue (specialized to conduct an impulse / bioelectric signal) ** muscle tissue (consists of long, excitable cells that are contractile) ** unique to animal kingdom/excitable tissue

Types of epithelial tissues top exposed while bottom attached to basement membrane (basal lamina) classified by number of cell layers . . . simple vs. stratified (pseudostratified) and the shape of free surface cells cuboidal columnar

squamous Connective tissue fibers collagenous elastic reticular Major connective tissue types loose fibroblasts

macrophages adipose Fibrous (tendons and ligaments)

Cartilage Bone Blood - consists of liquid (plasma) and cells Nervous Tissue senses stimuli and transmits signals neuron - a nerve cell (conducts impulses) cell body dendrites: conduct impulses to the cell body axons: transmit impulses away from cell body

Parts of a Neuron Types of muscle tissues (a) (b) (c) skeletal cardiac

smooth Types of muscle tissues Bioenergetics BMR basal metabolic rate endotherms SMR

standard metabolic rate ectotherms ! Body Plans Regulation: Internal Environment The function of most systems is to contribute toward homeostasis

(maintenance of stable, internal conditions within narrow limits). Stable conditions are most often maintained by negative feedback. Example of Homeostatic Control via Negative Feedback How does it work? A sensing mechanism (receptor) detects a

change in conditions beyond specific limits. A control center (integrator), often the brain, evaluates the change and activates a second mechanism (effector) to correct the condition. In negative feedback, the original condition is canceled, or negated, so that conditions are returned to normal. What about positive feedback? There is also positive feedback, in which

an action intensifies/amplifies a condition so that it continues beyond normal limits. Examples three physiological examples in humans Thermoregulation (2 groups) Ectotherms (poikilotherms) Endotherms (homeotherms) Mechanisms for temp. regulation

evaporative cooling warming via metabolism adjusting surface area to regulate temperature external surfaces internal surfaces countercurrent exchange Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition

Nutritional Requirements Food Types and Feeding Mechanisms Overview of Food Processing Mammalian Digestive System

Adaptations of Vertebrate Digestive Systems Nutritional Requirements animals are heterotrophs - they rely on organic compounds in their food an adequate diet provides an animal with: fuel (chemical energy) for cellular respiration raw organic materials for biosynthesis essential nutrients in prefabricated form

Mechanisms of fuel management monomers from any of the complex molecules can be used as an energy source, carbos and fats are used first oxidized fat produces 9.5 kcal/g= twice as rich in energy than either carbohydrates or proteins excess calories are stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen; further excess is stored in adipose tissue as fat

deficiencies in caloric intake are met by using glycogen stores first, then fat stores, followed by the breakdown of the bodys own proteins. Diet must supply essential nutrients and carbon skeletons biosynthesis involves the processes used to make organic molecules heterotrophs cannot use inorganic molecules to make organic ones; they require organic precursors.

Examples: single types of amino acids supply the necessary nitrogen to build other amino acids fats are synthesized from carbohydrates liver is the most important organ for the conversion of nutrients from one type of organic molecule to another Diet (contd) essential nutrients = chemicals an animal requires but cannot synthesize

an animal is malnourished if its diet is missing one or more essential nutrients: essential amino acids: adult humans 12 + 8, infants 11+ 9; kwashiorkor - protein deficiency essential fatty acids: humans - linoleic acid vitamins: organic coenzymes (see Table 41.1) minerals: inorganic nutrients (see Table 41.2) Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins are either water- or fat-soluble

water-soluble are not stored in the body; excesses are excreted in the urine fat-soluble can be held in the body; excesses are stored in body fat; may accumulate to toxic levels and create a condition called vitaminosis if an animal synthesizes a certain compound, it is not a vitamin (ascorbic acid: humans/rabbits) Minerals may be structural (Ca), part of enzyme (Cu) or other molecules (Fe)

Food Types and Feeding Mechanisms Animals usually ingest other organisms; parasites like tapeworms are an exception herbivores eat autotrophic organisms carnivores eat other animals omnivores eat other animals and autotrophs Feeding adaptations

suspension-feeders substrate-feeders deposit-feeders fluid-feeders bulk-feeders

Overview of Food Processing 4 main stages of food processing ingestion: the act of eating digestion: process of breaking down food into particles that are small enough to absorb; hydrolytic enzymes cleave macromolecules into their monomers in special compartments absorption: uptake of small molecules from digested material

elimination: undigested material passes out of the digestive compartment Specialized Compartments intracellular - food vacuoles are simple organelles which digest food without having to mix hydrolytic enzymes with cell cytoplasm extracellular - compartments are continuous with the outside of the body

gastrovascular cavity - one opening; functions both in digestion and nutrient distribution complete digestive tracts, or alimentary canals, run between two openings; unidirectional flow means that regions of tube can be specialized Mammalian Digestive System consists of an alimentary canal and accessory glands that secrete digestive juices into the canal via ducts

peristalsis - smooth muscles move food sphincters - ringlike muscle valves occur at important junctions and regulate movement accessory glands - 3 pairs of salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and the gallbladder Oral cavity and Pharynx oral cavity - physical and chemical digestion begin here chewing breaks food into smaller pieces to make it easier to

swallow and to increase the surface area available to enzymes salivary glands are stimulated by the presence of food to secrete saliva; contains mucin, buffers, antibacterial agents, and salivary amylase pharynx - intersection for both the digestive and respiratory systems; movement of epiglottis blocks the glottis (windpipe) during swallowing

Esophagus muscular tube connects stomach to pharynx movement of bolus due to peristalsis initial entrance is voluntary (swallowing); once in movement is due to involuntary contraction of smooth muscle amylase remains active as the bolus moves through the esophagus Stomach - (3 fxns.)

Food Storage - up to 2L Churning - mixing of food with secretions mixture is called acid chyme; passage into small intestine is controlled by pyloric sphincter Secretion - controlled by parasympathetic nerve impulses and hormone - gastrin 3 types of secretory gastric cells

mucous cells release mucin and gastrin into bloodstream which stimulates further gastric secretions chief cells releases pepsinogen - the precursor to pepsin, a major proteolytic enzyme releases zymogens - inactive proteases parietal cells

secrete HCl - lowers stomach pH to 1-4 Small intestine - (2 fxns.) digestion - hydrolytic enzymes and other secretions from 4 organs play a role pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and the small intestine itself most enzymatic activity occurs in the duodenum - the first 25 cm of the small int. absorption of nutrients - through villi

villi and microvilli increase the absorptive surface area of the digestive tract (~300 m2) occurs in the jejunum and ileum Pancreas - a compound gland endocrine, ductless gland - secretes insulin and glucagon hormones into the blood; not a digestive role exocrine, ducted gland - secretes hydrolytic enzymes into the duodenum - break down

all major classes of macromolecules; also secretes bicarbonate buffer to neutralize acid chyme Liver - organ of many functions for digestion, the liver produces bile, which:

is stored in the gallbladder contains no digestive enzymes contains bile salts which emulsify fats contains pigments - the byproduct of broken RBCs in the bloodstream emulsification - chemical reaction that converts fat globules into tiny fatty droplets and increases the enzymatic surface area

Major digestive enzymes in SI carbohydrates - disaccharidases proteins - zymogens are activated by enteropeptidase; converts trypsinogen to trypsin; trypsin activates more enzymes nucleic acids - nucleases, nucleotidases fats - emulsification; then acted on by pancreatic lipase

Absorption of monomers nutrients are either diffused or actively transported across the epithelium and into capillaries amino acids, sugars, and nucleotides diffuse easily into the bloodstream glycerol and fatty acids are recombined in the epithelial cells to form fats capillaries and veins drain nutrients from villi

directly into the hepatic portal vein Regulation of Digestion: Four Regulatory Hormones gastrin: released from stomach as a response to the presence of food; stimulates the stomach to release gastric juices (pepsin and HCl) secretin: released from duodenum; response to acid chyme entering from the stomach; signals the pancreas to release bicarbonate buffer

cholecystokinin (CCK): signals the gall bladder to release bile; pancreas to release enzymes enterogastrone: response to the presence of fat in the chyme; inhibits peristalsis - slows digestion Large intestine or Colon connects to small intestine in a T junction blind end of T is the cecum and ends with the fingerlike extension called the appendix colon is shaped like an inverted U

ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon water reclamation is the large intestines major role produces feces which are stored in the rectum and passed from the body Adaptations of Vertebrate Digestive Systems Structural adaptations of digestive systems are often associated with diet dentition in mammals and nonmammals

length of the digestive system vs. diet Symbiotic microorganisms aid nourishment symbiotic bacteria and protozoa may make cellulase housed in cecum (horse) cecum and colon (rabbit) or elaborate structure of ruminants 42: Circulation in Animals Primary Function: to pump oxygen and nutrient rich liquids throughout the internal environment

Types of circulatory systems open circulatory system closed circulatory system Major Organs Heart Arteries/Veins/capillaries Overview of Circulation exchange of materials (nutrients, gases, or wastes) b/t animals and the environment take place across

moist cell membranes Problem of being 3-dimensional some cells are isolated from the environment solution: exchange organs coupled with a system for internal transport transport systems connect the exchange organs w/ body cells Why we need circulation

time of diffusion is proportional to the square of the distance travelled ex. Glucose takes 1 second to diffuse 100 micrometers, therefore it will take 100 seconds to travel 1 mm. The presence of a circulatory system reduces the distance a substance must diffuse to enter or leave a cell. Most crucial for maintaining homeostasis

Invertebrate Circulation Gastrovascular Cavities cnidarian body plan - two cell layers thick and encloses a g.v. cavity; no need for internal transport system b/c the g.v. cavity distributes it planarians and flatworms also have g.v.c. - flattened shape reduces distance for diffusion

Open Circulatory System - hemolymph hemolymph acts as both the blood and interstitial fluid; bathes organs while moving through sinuses; ostia - pores in vessels Found in insects, other arthropods, and mollusks Closed Cardiovascular Systems consists of a heart, blood vessels, and blood the vertebrate heart has: one atrium (or 2 atria), chamber receives blood one ventricle (or 2), chamber pumps blood out

arteries - carry blood away from heart veins - carry blood to the heart blood flow: heart ventricle - artery - arteriole - capillary venule - vein - heart atrium Found in annelids, cephalopods, + vertebrates Vertebrate Circulatory Systems Examination of vertebrates shows adaptation Fish: 2 chambered heart (1 atrium and 1 ventricle) single circulation: passes through 2 capillary beds

blood flow: ventricle - gills (capillary beds) - arteries - organs (capillary bed) - veins - atrium disadvantage: low blood pressure - 2 beds Amphibians and most reptiles: 3 chambered (2 atria and 1 ventricle) double circulation: systemic circuit and pulmocutaneous/pulmonary circuit blood flow: ventricle - lungs - left atrium - ventricle - organs - right atrium disadvantage: mixing of oxy- and deoxy- blood-1 ventricle

Crocodilian, Avian, and Mammalian Hearts Campbell - See Fig. 42.3c and 42.5 Has double circulation with complete separation of oxy- and deoxy- blood inc. efficiency of oxygen delivery to cells.

located beneath sternum 2 atria have thin walls - collection chambers 2 ventricles w/ thick walls - pump blood 4 valves in heart - stop backflow during systole atrioventricular - found b/t atrium and ventricle semilunar - b/t aorta and left ventricle and pulmonary artery and right ventricle heart murmurs - defect in a valve - allows backflow Heart rate - # of heartbeats per minute

Rhythmic Pumping in Heart Pulse - measure of the # of heartbeats / min Inversely related to size of animal: elephants ~ 25 beats/min.; shrews ~ 600 beats/min. cardiac cycle (Fig. 42.6) is the complete sequence of contraction of heart chambers systole - muscle contracts and pump blood diastole - muscle relaxes and chamber fills cardiac output - volume of blood / min that the left ventricle pumps to systemic circuit

depends on heart rate and stroke volume avg. stroke volume ~ 75 mL; avg. output ~ 5.25 L / min Maintenance of Rhythm cardiac muscle is myogenic (self-excitable) contracts without input from nervous system tempo - controlled by sinoatrial (SA) node called the pacemaker; found in rt atrial wall near superior vena cava (Fig. 42.7) contains specialized muscle cells

SA node contraction (causes 2 atria to contract in unison) atrioventricular (AV) node delay of 0.1 seconds bundle of His Purkinje fibers (causes ventricular contraction from bottom up) impulses may be recorded on skin by EKG or ECG electrocardiogram Factors that influence SA node 2 antagonistic sets of nerves one speeds up - other slows down the SA node contractions

hormonal influence of SA node epinephrine increases heart rate body temperature and exercise Differences in Blood Vessels walls of arteries and veins are 3 layers thick outer - connective tissue w/ elastic fibers to allow stretching and recoil of vessel

middle - smooth muscle and elastic fibers inner - endothelium of simple squamous epithelium (Fig. 42.8) arteries have thicker walls to provide the strength needed to deal with high forces due to pumping; elasticity evens flow veins are thinner to accommodate lower pressure and velocity; flow aided by muscles Capillaries are made of only endothelial lining, permits the exchange of chemicals with the interstitial fluids

Fluid Dynamics blood flow velocity differences in speed of blood flow occur in different parts of the circulatory system 30 cm/sec in aorta; 0.026 cm/sec in capillary law of continuity states that fluid velocity is indirectly proportional to the cross-sectional area of the pipe if the volume of fluid constant greater total diameter in capillary beds

Blood Pressure forces that blood exerts on vessel walls greater in arteries than in veins; greatest during ventricular systole Blood pressure is determined by cardiac output and degree of peripheral resistance Peripheral resistance comes from impedance by arterioles; blood enters the arteries faster than it can

leave. This means that there is a pressure even during diastole, blood flows into the capillaries continuously. In veins, blood pressure is ~ 0. Blood returns to the heart via contraction of the skeletal muscles. Diffusion across Capillary Walls blood flow through capillary beds regulation of blood distribution in capillaries

contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle layer in arteriole walls contraction and relaxation of the precapillary sphincters example: blood flow in digestive tract capillary exchange wall is a single, leaky layer of simple squamous cells: vesicle, diffusion, bulk flow Lymphatic System

returns fluid to blood and aids in defense lymph is similar to interstitial fluid two drainage locations - near the shoulders vessels are valved to prevent backflow

lymph capillaries absorb fat in the digestive tract and transport it to the circulatory sys. lymph nodes are swellings in the system that filter the lymph and attack pathogens Blood: a Connective Tissue Consists of several cell types suspended in a liquid matrix called the plasma (Fig. 42.13) Avg. human = 4-6L of whole blood

Plasma (~55% of volume) mostly water, also contains electrolytes and proteins Cellular elements (~45% of volume) Erythrocytes (RBCs) Leukocytes (WBCs) 5 types: basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes Platelets Replacement of cellular elements Cellular elements must be replaced as they

wear out. Pluripotent stem cells give rise to the 3 cellular elements are found in the red marrow of bones like the ribs, vertebrae, sternum and pelvis. Blood Clotting Clots form when platelets clump together to form a temporary plug. The platelets release clotting factors that convert

inactive fibrinogen to active fibrin. Genetic lack of clotting factors may cause hemophilia, a disorder characterized by excessive bleeding due to minor injuries. Sometimes individuals with cardiovascular disease, will form a thrombus (blood clot) within the blood vessels. Cardiovascular Disease Leading cause of death in the US and other

developed nations (account for > 50%) Most are due to heart attack and stroke Heart attack: death of cardiac muscle resulting from prolonged blockage of coronary arteries Stroke: death of nervous tissue in the brain resulting from blockage of arteries in the brain. Thrombus is often associated with these events Atherosclerosis degeneration of arteries

AP Guide to ER vocab Now you can watch ER and know what Dr. Carter is saying: example: Oh $^!+, asystole! Push 10 mikes of epi, stat! Charge to 20! Clear!! Translation: Fudgecicles, there is no pulse! Inject ten microliters of epinephrine, now please! Charge the defibrillator paddles to 20 millivolts! Stand back so I dont shock the urine out of you, thanks!!

Gas Exchange in Animals Primary Function: to exchange gases with the environment Major Organs/Functional Units Gills Lungs/alveolus Overview of Gas Exchange

Gills: Aquatic Adaptations Tracheal and Lung Systems Regulation of Breathing Pressure Gradients and Diffusion Respiratory Pigments

Deep-Diving Mammals Excretory System Primary Function filter nitrogenous wastes from the blood/osmoregulation Major Organs Kidney/nephron Regulating Water Balance

the absorption and excretion of water and solutes so that proper water balance (osmotic pressure) is maintained Example - marine fish body is hypoosmotic to environment. (fish is less salty than its environment) water is constantly lost by osmosis To maintain its internal environment: constantly drink

rarely urinate secrete accumulated salts through their gills Example - fresh water fish body is hyperosmotic to environment. (fish is saltier than its environment) water constantly diffuses into the body To maintain its internal environment: rarely drink constantly urinate

absorb salts through their gills Excretory mechanisms osmoregulation and removal of toxic substances (includes by-products of protein metabolism, such as nitrogenous wastes)

contractile vacuoles flame cells nephridia/metanephridia Malpighian tubules kidney = collection of nephrons(filtering tubes) Parts of the Kidney

cortex medulla renal pelvis Bowmans capsule - glomerulus convoluted tubules - distal, proximal and

the Loop of Henle collecting duct How the Kidney Works Filtration Secretion Reabsorption Hormonal Regulation two hormones influence osmoregulation

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Increases the reabsorption of water by the body and increases the concentration of salts in the urine. Increases the permeability of collecting duct to water. aldosterone Increases both the reabsorption of water and Na+ Increases the permeability of the distal convoluted tubule to Na+. Na+ diffuses out of the tubule, water follows passively

Nitrogenous Wastes Nervous System Primary Function receive/interpret/send electrical signals over long distances Major Organs Nerves/neuron Brain

Spinal Cord Skeleto-muscular System Primary Function support/protection/locomotion Major Organs Bone Joints Muscle/sarcomere

Endocrine System Primary Function send messages through the body by means of hormones/regulation of development and timing of important events Major Organs Pituitary Gland Adrenal Gland Ch. 43: Immune System

Primary Function prevent invasion of body by foreign pathogens/ clean-up or upkeep of the body Major Organs and Cells lymph nodes T cells/ B cells 3 Levels of Defense First 2 lines = non-specific, third = specific.

1st line skin: physical barrier covered in acids, oils, etc. antimicrobial proteins: found in saliva, tears, etc. (lysozyme-breaks down the cell walls of bacteria cilia: found in linings of lungs gastric juice symbiotic bacteria 2nd Line phagocytes: include neutrophils, monocytes (which

become macrophages) and NK cells complement: 20 proteins that aid defense rxns. Interferons: secretions that stimulate neighboring cells to protect against viruses inflammatory response

secretion of histamine by basophils vasodilation phagocytes complement Third Line - Immune Response Two kinds of immune responses cell-mediated response humoral response

Three Aids to Immunity antibiotics vaccines passive immunity Objective Quiz 40-44 Distinguish between positive and negative feedback mechanisms. Define and compare the four main stages of food

processing. Define a cardiac cycle and distinguish between systole and diastole. Distinguish between humoral immunity and cellmediated immunity. Distinguish between regulators and conformers.

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