Aims - 3lgm2.de

Aims - 3lgm2.de

Health Information Systems Architectures and Strategies Strategic Information Management in Hospitals Manuscript 2010 chapter 7 August 2010 copyright by W.J. ter Burg MSc Department of Medical Informatics Academic Medical Center University of Amsterdam Email:[email protected] and Alfred Winter, University of Leipzig, Germany Reinhold Haux - University of Braunschweig, Institute of Technology and of Hannover Medical School, Germany Elske Ammenwerth, University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT) in Hall, Austria Birgit Brigl, German Federal Ministry of Finance Nils Hellrung, University of Braunschweig, Institute of Technology and of Hannover Medical School, Germany

University of Systems Leipzig, Germany WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Franziska Jahn, Health Information 1 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Introduction Institutional information systems in general and hospital information systems in particular are parts of larger, cross-linked systems Given the demographic change in most countries we can assume that in future the number of chronically ill patients will increase The medical treatment of chronic diseases typically involves many different actors over a long period of time, including hospitals, medical practitioners, specialists of different medical fields, nurses of home care services and even relatives

WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 2 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Hospitals are the most complex institutions in health care and the architectures presented for their information systems are valid also for transinstitutional health information systems However, with the extension of our perspective beyond one institution, the complexity raises and the challenges for health information systems are even intensified WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 3

Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS After this lecture, you should be able to answer the following questions: How do architectures of transinstitutional health information systems differ from those of hospital information systems? What additional challenges do we have to cope with? Which strategies are appropriate for maintaining electronic health records in a transinstitutional health information system? WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 4 Specific Aspects for Architectures of

Transinstitutional HIS Domain layer Since a transinstitutional health information system can be considered as the entirety of all institutional information systems of a health care network it has to support all the enterprise functions to be performed in the member institutions. If hospitals are part of this health care network, at least the hospital functions introduced have to be supported and data about the entity types have to be stored, communicated and processed ..... WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 5 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS

However, in the context of transinstitutional collaboration of health care providers further specific aspects have to be considered Additional enterprise functions and entity types have to be taken into account, if health insurances and governmental authorities are members of a transinstitutional health information system Enterprise functions: Patient admission Decision Making, Planning and Organization of Patient Treatment Execution of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures Additional enterprise function WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 6

Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Patient admission In transinstitutional health information systems the situation turns out to be more complicated Since PIN and CIN are assigned during patient admission, only one admission has to be performed and only one PIN has to be assigned to the patient during his or her visit This works well, if there is exactly one dedicated application component supporting patient admission .. WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 7 Specific Aspects for Architectures of

Transinstitutional HIS Object identity can be guaranteed only if a patient will receive his or her PIN during the first visit to one of the health care networks institutions Again this PIN has to be used in all parts of the health care network for the identification of the patient and will be used during future visits regardless of the visited institution Regardless the technology used, data recorded at patient admission and especially PIN and CIN have to be made available to all enterprise functions needing them throughout the transinstitutional health information system WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 8 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS

Patient admission in the office of a general practitioner WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 9 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Decision making, planning and organization of patient treatment Quality of decisions on diagnoses and appropriate therapies can be improved by incorporating experts in other organizations into the decision process. Teleconsultations using means for video conferencing and exchange of patients documents are more and more used. Transfer of rights to access to the patients record in parallel to the patients path from one care provider to the next and of

course their ability to access the records are prerequisites for this kind of joined decision making WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 10 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Execution of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures In health care networks not only expertise in decision making can be shared. Moreover resources for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are shareable as well For example: A radiology expert in one hospital may supervise modalities at other hospitals as well and be in charge of radiological diagnostics. She or he may do this by using teleradiology equipment for digital transmission of image, finding and worklist data

WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 11 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Additional enterprise function Additional institutions may be health insurances and governmental authorities for example. Besides their general administration functions, they have to perform specific enterprise functions A health insurance company, for example, has to develop insurance plans, to advise its clients, to receive and pay bills from hospitals and practitioners More and more they have to take responsibility for disease management That is to support their clients the patients in finding a path, which is best suited for her or his special health care needs

WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 12 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Governmental authorities, for example, have to care for the health care system as a whole, hence they take responsibility for the availability of health care providers of different kind at any place in a region. They need data about incidence and prevalence of diseases in order to plan for care resources meeting the needs of the people. In case of disasters they have to coordinate help for the people involved. Furthermore they observe epidemiologic development of diseases in order to detect or better to prevent epidemics and pandemics. Diagnoses are therefore needed from any health care provider across all relevant health care networks WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al

Health Information Systems 13 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Logical tool layer The logical tool layer of a transinstitutional health information system consists of the application components of all involved institutional information systems We will discuss the following subjects: Integration of application components Strategies for electronic health record systems Provider-centric strategy WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems

14 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Integration of application components In different institutional types, such as rehabilitation centers, ambulatory care providers or private practices, different bestof-breed solutions have been used in the past and lots of vendors can be found in the markets Hence all transinstitutional architectures HIS do have (DBn, ACn,

V n) Standards for integration, such as HL7, DICOM and EDIFACT, become even more important against this background WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 15 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS In this context is the IHE Technical Framework is important. The IHE Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing (XDS) Integration Profile focuses on providing standard-based specifications for transinstitutional sharing of medical documents In many areas standardization initiatives are either at the beginning or heavily influenced by local governance. Hence,

standards are not always scalable to an international scale Additionally, the following two problems are reinforced in transinstitutional information: Encryption and Patient identification WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 16 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Encryption Encryption of those messages transferred during communication in the context of notifications, teleconsultations, or teleconferences, and for the global use of patient records, have to be protected from unauthorized third party access Encryption procedures basing on public key infrastructures exist for

these cases. A problem is the correct identification of the respective communication partner A remedy in this case could be electronic identification. In health care, the so-called health care professional card (HPC) is currently being tried out, which uniquely identifies a specific health care professional WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 17 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Patient identification The proper assignment of a PIN to patients within a transinstitutional health information system is only possible if: there is only one application component used for admission in the health care network or if all application components that are used for admission

have access to one central master patient index (MPI) In case of MPI, manually or semiautomatically found relationships of PINs from different institutions are saved in one network MPI and are made available to all member institutions WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 18 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Strategies for Electronic Health Record Systems Besides the intensified integrational challenges transinstitutional information systems have to cope with specific problems regarding the ownership and organization of the electronic health record (EHR) Transinstitutional health information systems are characterized by (DBn, ACn, Vn) architectures and thus are very

heterogeneous and highly redundant One important question is how an EHR can be organized in a way that the complete set of relevant patient data is available whenever and wherever it is needed WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 19 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS In the following, different strategies of transinstitutional health information systems are discussed that are distinguished by the responsible role. Note, that the introduced strategies may appear combined in reality

The The The The Provider-centric Strategy Patient-centric strategy Regional or National-centric Strategy Strategy of independent health Banks WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 20 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS

The Provider-centric Strategy In the provider-centric strategy the medical records are kept by the institution that created them and are made available to other organizations on request. This model supports a process-oriented health care approach, which is central to such organizational types as: managed care, integrated delivery systems and disease management programs WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 21 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS However, this model has three disadvantages First, the information about a patient remains dispersed

between different institutions. The EHR can only be assembled virtually and is likely to be incomplete, e.g. if one institution that holds information about a patient is not available Second, the participating institutions have to agree on semantic standards in order to achieve semantic integration Third, the model does not neutralize the challenge of competition between the institutions on the one hand and the need to cooperate in order to establish a complete HER on the other hand WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 22 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS The Patient-centric Strategy In this strategy, the patient is perceived as the primary owner of his data. A patient can set up a record on an internet portal or

on other appropriate media This type of patient-owned electronic record is also called Personal Health Record (PHR) WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 23 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS The disadvantages of this model are: supposed incompleteness of the record, the perception of the record by health workers as unprofessional, the unsolved problem of accessing the data in emergency situations In order to compensate these disadvantages, the patient-centric strategy is often combined with the provider-centric strategy, i.e. a health care provider manages the PHR on behalf of the

patient WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 24 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS The Regional- or National-centric Strategy In the so-called regional- or national-centric strategy, the EHR is maintained centrally by a public institution. This can be on a regional or nationwide level. Although this strategy has some advantages that are based on the legal authority of public services, the centralized operation might lead to: inefficiency and many ethical questions regarding the problem of Orwellization remain unsolved

WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 25 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS The Strategy of Independent Health Banks The non-centric strategy of independent health banks has not been implemented yet This strategy is not centered on the mentioned stakeholders in health care. Since these banks are not part of the health care system, they remain neutral In health care institutions, there would be no need to maintain archives of medical records WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al

Health Information Systems 26 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Physical Tool Layer At the physical tool layer a transinstitutional health information system depends on a trustworthy and secure communication network Installing and operating dedicated hardware and especially exclusively used wires, cables or radio-relay links to connect institutions of a health care network could provide excellent potential for high performance and protection from illegal intrusion. But since these are quite expensive solutions, usually the public infrastructure of the internet is used. WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems

27 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Providing trustworthiness and security while using internet based communication networks demands particular endeavors. An exclusively used communication network can be simulated by virtual private networks (VPN) Institutions have to install so-called firewall hardware to monitor and check data exchange between inside and outside the institutions information system (i.e. intranet separated from the internet) Servers hosting data, can be placed outside the intranet in a socalled demilitarized zone WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 28

Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS Summary Since medical treatment often involves many different actors over a long period of time, relevant medical data should be available regardless to the institution where they have been produced Transinstitutional information systems feature all enterprise functions to be performed in the member institutions of the respective health care network By sharing resources, such as radiological equipment, health care can be organized more efficiently WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 29

Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS The challenges for integration are even more complex in comparison to institutional information systems. Additionally, the problems of encryption and patient identification are reinforced Different strategies for organizing transinstitutional EHRs can be identified, which may appear in combination A transinstitutional health information system depends on a trustworthy and secure communication network WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 30 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS

Summary Medical treatment often involves many different actors over a long period of time, relevant medical data should be available regardless to the institution where they have been produced. Transinstitutional information systems feature all enterprise functions to be performed in the member institutions of the respective health care network At the domain layer, a unique patient and case identifier are needed to support the function patient admission WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems 31 Specific Aspects for Architectures of Transinstitutional HIS The logical tool layer of a transinstitutional health information system consists of the application components of all involved

institutional information systems. The challenges for integration are even more complex in comparison to institutional information systems The challenges for integration are even more complex in comparison to institutional information systems Different strategies for organizing transinstitutional EHRs can be identified, which may appear in combination. provider-centric strategy patient-centric strategy, regional- or national-centric strategy independent health banks WJPP ter Burg MSc et. al Health Information Systems

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