Agents with Pull

Agents with Pull

Wireless OEP Secure Language-Based Adaptive Service Platform (SLAP) for Large-Scale Embedded Sensor Networks Systems Wireless EmBedded David Culler, Eric Brewer, David Wagner, Shankar Sastry Univ. of California, Berkeley 1 Administrative Project Title: Secure Language-Based Adaptive Service Platform (SLAP) for Large-Scale Embedded Sensor Networks PM: Vijay Raghavan PI: David Culler, Eric Brewer, David Wagner, Shankar Sastry PI phone # : 510-643-7572 PI email: [email protected] Institution: University of California, Berkeley Contract #: F33615-01-C-1895 AO number: Award start date: 6/1/01 Award end date: 10/31/04 Agent name & organization: Juan Carbonell, AFRL/Rome 2 Subcontractors and Collaborators Crossbow manufactures & tests node and sensor boards

offers for sale beyond initial contract run UCLA development of networking algorithms, coordination services, testbed development Intel Research application studies, base-station support, ubicomp usage, language design potential next generation design and manufacturing collaboration Kestrel, UCI, Vanderbilt, Notre Dame, MIT, USC, U Wash., UIUC, UVA, Ohio State, Bosch, Rutgers, Dartmouth, GATECH, Xerox 3 Problem Description, Project Overview Develop NEST platform research to dramatically accelerate the development of algorithms, services, and their composition into applications theory to practice at a very early stage, without each group developing extensive infrastructure Critical barriers are scale, concurrency, complexity, and uncertainty. Permit demonstration of fine-grain distributed control Define series of challenge applications to drive the program components Metric of success rate of development of new algorithmic components & novel factors revealed through hands-on empirical use degree of reuse of platform components scale of integration across program effectiveness of fine-grain dist. control on challenge P.E.G. scale of use of NEST components in challenge app 4 Secure Language-Based Adaptive Service Platform for Large-scale Embedded Sensor Networks Wireless OEP

David Culler, Eric Brewer, David Wagner Shankar Sastry UC Berkeley F33615-01-C-1895 Impact Enable creation of embedded distributed syst. of unprecedented scale and role Enable new classes of applications integrated with physical world Accelerate prototyping and evaluation of new coord. & synthesis algorithms Drive NW sensor challenge applications New Ideas Small, flexible, low-cost, low-power, wireless embedded sensor devices with Tiny event-driven, robust, open OS FSM high-concurrency prog. env. Macroprogramming unstructured aggregates Resilient aggregation & Adversarial Simulation Recent Progress Completed TinyOS 1.0 release

full nesC impl. + idl + Msg i/f generator advance NW stack with link-level ack ChipCon radio stack + crossbow mica-CC TinySEC encryption and security reliability-based, prob. routing Scalable TOSSIM with nw model and GUI Harsh longterm env. mon. deployment Constraint-based localization calibration TinyDB & nesl macroprogramming 2nd spin mote-on-chip stability anal. of MoteBot control operational mid-term appln framework Schedule chal. app defn FSM OEP1 on OEP1 eval OEP1 defn June 02 log & trace adv. sim lang

transition based planning optimize & viz macro. lang design Sept 02 final prog. env Sept 03 June 01 Start OEP1 OEP2 OEP2 proto platform OEP2 design analysis 10x100 kits Sept 04 End OEP2 OEP3 chal app & midterm platform evaluation

demo design 5 Project Status Robustified Platform - TinyOS1.0 nesC language, whole pgm analysis, idl, refined all components, linklevel acks, routing, documentation,network programming, race detection Long term, outdoor deployment + many smaller MidTerm tracker framework operational TinySEC security supported (soon default) Guided Crossbow on chipcon mica/dot provided chipcon network stack, dot port other companies mfr. mica variants (Intel CF, dig. sun) TOSSIM prob. connectivity, whole applns, GUI Preliminary macroprogramming approaches New MotBots, motor board, control and analysis Testing 1st mote-chip, fabd 2nd Challenge minitask, security minitask, transition planning 6 Platform HW Development Mica => Crossbow dot, mica2 chipcon radio, supported in UCB release

Other companies producing variants intel, digital sun, Bosch, dust inc. Prototyped new weatherboard with all digital sensors New motor-control board for CotsBots 7 TinyOS 1.0 Release finalized in Oct 02. Based on nesC language and tools Revised and tested every components beta cycle & feedback with other groups Documentation and tutorials New NW stack with link-level acks retransmission dictated by higher levels Automatic msg class generator Major rewrite of TOSSIM Substantially reduced start-up and development time 8 NesC Clean linguistic support for TinyOS concepts components, cmds, events, tasks, storage framework to move forward Integrated (and improved) IDL interfaces distinct from component defn bi-directional bundles of methods parameterized (incl. interposition in par. i/f)

whole program analysis and optimization 25% code-size reduction: dead (9%), inlining (16%) nesC-DOC documentation tool Substantially reduced startup and dev. time MIG automatically generates host java class for each type of TOS_MSG zero bugs identified in compiler since release 9 NesC developments Automatic Race and Deadlock detection Key idea: detect sharing, enforce atomicity Two kinds of contexts: intrpt & task Tested on full TinyOS tree + applications 186 modules (121 modules, 65 configurations) 20-69 modules/app, 35 average 17 tasks, 75 events on average (per app) Found 156 races: 103 real: fixed by atomic + post 53 false: state-based guards, buffer swap, causal Abstract Components multiple instances of components multi-client components 10 TinySec Link layer security for TinyOS applications Previous solutions are insecure or too resource-intensive 802.11 WEP, GSM, Bluetooth, IPSEC Transparent (e.g. simple key management, key file, built into stack) Access control, Confidentiality, Message integrity

Architectural features Single globally shared cryptographic key Cryptography based on a block cipher New TinyOS radio stack that integrates security mechanisms Extensible (e.g. easy to add new HW/SW implementations of block ciphers and modes of operation) Implementation TinySecM: bridges radio stack and crypto +5 bytes to msg + mac&iv - CRC&group Imp RC5 C only RC5 SPINS: C/asm Skip Jack TinySec: C RC5 TinySec: C/asm

cycles/blk ms/blk ~5750 + 1.70 ms ~2775 avg 0.75 ms ~2500 0.70 ms ~1775 avg 0.50 ms 11 Environment Monitoring Experience live & historical readings 43 nodes, 7/13-11/18 above and below ground

light, temperature, relative humidity, and occupancy data, at 1 minute resolution >1 million measurements Best nodes ~90,000 3 major maintenance events node design and packaging in harsh environment -20 100 degrees, rain, wind power mgmt and interplay with sensors Patch Network Sensor Node Sensor Patch

Gateway Transit Network Client Data Browsing and Processing Basestation Base-Remote Link Internet Data Service 12 Sample Results Node Node lifetime lifetime & & Utility Utility Effective Effective communication communication phase phase Packet Packet Loss Loss correlation correlation 13 Reliability-Based Routing Building up MHop routing based on prob.

connectivity model characterize link behavior develop link estimators EWMA of windowed ave => 10% w/i 100 msgs statistical nbhd table distributed estimated reliability-based topology formation cycle detection/breaking clear transitional silent Simulation and empirical char. of alternatives beacon and shortest-hop perform poorly path-loss estimate, threshold shortest-path good fewest aggregate transmissionsmost attractive Minimize (1/(pfi * pri)) 14 TOSSim Event Queue Builds directly from TinyOS code Scales 1,000s of nodes Captures network behavior at bit level static, dynamic topology prob. link mode ADC Event


GUI Plug-ins Event Bus debugging Whole applns interact with simulation same way as real network Vizualization environment Component Graphs el Communication od Services M Communication SerialForwarder TOSSIM Events Drawing Commands 15 Mini-app Framework Series of telecons => arch Preliminary arch document Re-designed demo as composition of services Service info sharing w/i node & between nodes

(i.e., comm) => reflected tuples Init. version operational Mag Sensor Presentation Presentation this this afternoon afternoon Estimation Scheduler Localization Hood Tuples Routing Time Sync 16 CotsBots Platform Dual-tinyOS system 51-Pin I/O Expansion Connector UART, I2C, SPI Digital I/O Analog I/O Communication UART packet link

Motor Servo Board Motor1 Atmel ATmega8L 1-8MHz,,8KB Prog.1KB RAM 2 Discrete H-Bridge Circuits ATmega8 Microcontroller Motor2 Accelerometer Speed and Direction Control up to 4A, 30V load Power Monitoring Accelerometer Self location/heading navigation Motor-packets interpreted Robot Char. stability of navigation Clock Motor control alg. MotorTop Battery Voltage MotorServo Board Mica Mote

Desired location Packet Kyosho Mini-Z RC Car MZ Motor1 MZServo Motor Packet ADC 17 MacroProgramming Goal Write high-level programs for groups of motes Deal with failure and uncertainty, varying numbers of motes Abstract issues of time, location, neighbors Provide implicit communication and data sharing Enable low power and bandwidth efficiency TinyDB declarative SQL-like streaming queries, filters, aggregation, triggers released with TinyOS soon: materialized queries & actions Unstructured Dataparallel preliminary nesl emulation 18

Mote-on-a-chip proved synthesis path & architecture NW hardware accel. reg reg win win AVR Core Start symbol detection Timing extraction DMA Instruction Bus partial energy analysis Timer Modules ~ 150 uA/Mhz @ 1.5V ~1 uA standby UART 2nd version Digital I/O

transmitter 1 mA, .5 mW TX power stream-based encryption register windows RF control RF freq. lock ? ADC Controller Encryption Memory Bus Address Match Unit Address Match Unit Address Match Unit Address Match Unit Address Match Unit Address Translation Unit RF Serialization ? ? ?

X RAM Block RAM Block RAM Block RAM Block RAM Block SPI Programming Unit RF Timing RF Clocking Channel Monitoring RF Control Reg RF Freq LOock 19 Connectivity Phase Trans. w/ random connection model for the standard connection model (disc) 0.359... c 2 r CNP c g ( x)dx c 4r 2 4.51 0.3 2 0.4 CNP

Connection probability ENC ( g ( x)) g ( x) x 2 ENC ( g ( x)) ENC ( gs( x)) gss (x) g ( x1 x2 ) gs( x1 x2 ) p g ( p ( x1 x2 )) ||x1-x2|| Squishing and squashing Shifting and squeezing MASSIMO MASSIMO FRANCESCHETTI FRANCESCHETTI 20 Other progress Multihop adaptive slotted-ring routing protocol for deep energy conservation. Self-calibrated localization Watch-dogs Network Programming Actuated sound environment

21 Goals and Success Criteria Enable rapid advance of theory and practice of networked, embedded devices and distributed algorithms upon them. adoption of the platform: ~100 groups nationwide emergence of new algorithms for important problems in this space demonstrations of working components Create a framework in which to integrated the best-ofbreed middleware and components of fine-grained distributed control. working demonstration of challenge appln. 22 Project Plans of 6 Mos Develop and execute mid-term demo coordinate and integrate middleware components TinyOS 1.1 automated race detection, abstract components, TinySec, component classification, HAL Improved Network Services time synch, coordinates, delivery, discovery integration with contributed middleware Stronger security: key mgmt and distribution, replay protection Tunable confidentiality guarantees Better performance Refinement of challenge app based on transition plan requirements

Design of OEP2 for challenge appln 23 Project Schedule and Milestones transition chal. app defn FSM nesC on OEP1 OEP1 defn June 02 June 01 Start OEP1 10x100 kits planning OEP1 eval log & trace adv. sim macro. lang design June 03 tinyos OEP2 1.1

platform design OEP2 midterm demo lang based optimize & viz final prog. env June 04 OEP3 OEP3 platform design chal app & evaluation 24 Technology Transition/Transfer All HW and SW open and web-accessible several groups building new boards & components Crossbow manufacturing and marketing MICAs chipcon dot shipping, mica2 in process

engaged in other DARPA efforts Intel Research collaborating on architecture language, and applications potential avenue for Silicon Radio and MEMS efforts major habitat monitoring effort Several start-ups & product development Dust Inc, DigitalSun, SensiCast, Bosch, 25 Program Issues Shifting into a new phase of integrating middleware Refinement of challenge application essential to guiding definition of OEP2 expected to be strongly influenced by transition plans NSF and other fed. agencies are waking up to sensor networks in a big way opportunities for collaboration rapidly growing commercial interest creating vendors to supply DOD technology ACM SenSys Conference: november 2003 due April 1 26

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