AFM Educational Slide Surveillance and Case Definition

AFM Educational Slide Surveillance and Case Definition

Acute Flaccid Myelitis (AFM): Evolution of the Case Definition and Public Health Surveillance, United States Last updated March 7, 2019 1 Objectives Provide a history of the evolution of the case definition for AFM Describe the information needed to report cases suspected of having AFM to public health for case classification 2

Slide 2 notes This presentation provides a history of the evolution of the case definition for AFM that is used for surveillance in the United States. Slides will also emphasize the importance of identifying and reporting cases of AFM and the information needed when reporting cases suspected of having AFM. 3 Investigation of AFM in the US, 2014 On September 12, 2014 CDC was notified of 9 children in Colorado with: Focal extremity weakness, cranial nerve dysfunction or both MRI: multi-level gray matter lesions of the spinal cord, brainstem, or ventral nerve roots

A large outbreak of respiratory illness due to enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) occurred at the same time in Colorado; although a temporal association was noted, laboratory testing of cerebrospinal fluid did not provide conclusive evidence of a single pathogen as a cause In response to these cases, CDC launched a surveillance 4 Slide 4 notes The national investigation of AFM began when CDC was notified on September 12, 2014 of 9 children in Colorado presenting with: Focal extremity weakness, cranial nerve dysfunction or both AND An MRI with gray matter lesions involving multiple segments of the spinal cord, brainstem, or ventral nerve roots A large number of cases of respiratory illness due to enterovirus D-68, or EV-D68 were happening at the same

time in Colorado. Although a temporal association was noted, laboratory testing of cerebrospinal fluid did not provide conclusive evidence of a single pathogen as a cause. In response to these cases, CDC launched a surveillance system to capture AFM cases nationwide. 5 Evolution of the surveillance case definition for AFM Evolution Confirmed case of AFM Onset of acute limb weakness, AND Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showing a spinal cord lesion largely restricted to gray matter, AND In a patient 21 years of age

Sept 12, 2014CDC notified of 9 cases in CO Sept 26, 2014HAN to call for national reporting 201 4 201 5 2016 2017

6 Slide 6 notes To determine the extent of the problem, CDC released an official Health Advisory through the Health Alert Network on September 26, 2014 requesting that states with patients meeting the case definition for AFM report them to CDC. The case definition proposed for national reporting included the following: A patient with acute onset of focal limb weakness AND predominant gray matter lesions on spinal MRI, in a person 21 years of age or younger, occurring on or after August 1, 2014 7 Evolution of the surveillance case definition for AFM Confirmed case of AFM Onset of acute limb weakness, AND Magnetic resonance image

(MRI) showing a spinal cord lesion largely restricted to gray matter, AND In a patient 21 years of age Sept 12, 2014CDC notified of 9 cases in CO Sept 26, 2014HAN to call for national reporting 201 4 Confirmed case of AFM

Acute onset of focal limb weakness, AND MRI showing a spinal cord lesion largely restricted to gray matter and spanning one or more spinal segments. Probable case of AFM Acute onset of focal limb weakness, AND Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with pleocytosis (white blood cell count >5 cells/mm3). June 2015 CSTE adopted standardized case definition 201 5

2016 2017 8 Slide 8 notes In 2015, the case definition was opened to persons of all ages to cast a wider net for cases. In addition, a probable case definition was added to include cases without MRI findings but with CSF pleocytosis. We know that MRI images can be normal in the first 72hrs after limb weakness, so this probable definition allowed us to capture cases who never got a repeat MRI. Case counts were low in 2015 despite heightened awareness after the spike in 2014. 9 Evolution of the surveillance case definition for AFM Confirmed case of AFM

Onset of acute limb weakness, AND Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showing a spinal cord lesion largely restricted to gray matter, AND In a patient 21 years of age Sept 12, 2014CDC notified of 9 cases in CO Sept 26, 2014HAN to call for national reporting 201

4 Confirmed case of AFM Acute onset of focal limb weakness, AND MRI showing a spinal cord lesion largely restricted to gray matter and spanning one or more spinal segments. Probable case of AFM Acute onset of focal limb weakness, AND Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with pleocytosis (white blood cell count >5 cells/mm3). June 2015 CSTE adopted standardized case definition

201 5 2016 Changed focal to flaccid and added for consistency, review and final case classification will be done by experts in national AFM surveillance, similar to the review required for final classification of paralytic polio cases. June 2017 CSTE adopted revisions to case

definition 2017 10 Slide 10 notes After a resurgence in cases in 2016, we modified the confirmed case definition in 2017 to change focal to flaccid to specify the type of weakness. We also added that the final case classification is to be done by a national panel of experts in AFM, similar to what is done for paralytic polio cases. 11 Reporting of cases of suspected AFM Clinician suspects AFM and: performs MRI obtains specimens completes patient

summary form 12 Slide 12 notes When a clinician suspects a patient has AFM, an MRI should be performed and specimens collected. Clinicians should contact their state or local health department to report the suspected case of AFM as soon as possible. Specimen collection includes CSF, serum, stool and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs which are used for both patientspecific diagnostic testing as well as to inform the overall national investigation into the etiology of AFM. Although certain tests can be performed at the local hospital or lab, all specimen types should still be sent to CDC as well for additional testing including enterovirus typing, pathogen discovery, and immune markers. 13 Reporting of cases of suspected AFM State and Local Health Department

Clinician suspects AFM and: performs MRI obtains specimens completes patient summary form State and local health departments: Reviews information from suspect case Collects medical data* Coordinates specimen transport * Medical data includes: hospital notes, neurology and infectious disease consult notes, MRI reports and images, laboratory test results, vaccination history, and discharge summary when available

14 Slide 14 notes The health department then reviews the information, works to collect the medical data, which includes hospital notes, neurology and infectious disease consult notes, MRI reports and images, laboratory test results, vaccination history, and discharge summary when available, and coordinates with CDC to send the information and samples. These data are used to classify cases and investigate potential etiologies and risk factors for AFM. 15 Reporting of cases of suspected AFM State and Local Health Department Case determination made by expert panel Patient form and medical

data MRI reports and images CDC Confirmed Clinician suspects AFM and: performs MRI obtains specimens completes patient summary form Probable State and local health departments: Reviews information from suspect case Collects medical data*

Coordinates specimen transport * Medical data includes: hospital notes, neurology and infectious disease consult notes, MRI reports and images, laboratory test results, vaccination history, and discharge summary when available 16 Slide 16 notes CDC will then forward the information to the expert neurology panel which is comprised of both CDC and external experts. The panel classifies cases as either Confirmed, Probable or Not a Case. Beginning in 2017, two neurologists are assigned to review each case. If their determinations are discordant, a third is brought in for adjudication. 17 Reporting of cases of suspected AFM

State and Local Health Department Case determination made by expert panel Patient form and medical data MRI reports and images CDC Confirmed Clinician suspects AFM and: performs MRI obtains specimens completes patient summary form

State and local health departments: Reviews information from suspect case Collects medical data* Coordinates specimen transport Case determination sent to clinician by State/Local Health Department Probable Case determination sent to State/ Local Health Department by CDC

* Medical data includes: hospital notes, neurology and infectious disease consult notes, MRI reports and images, laboratory test results, vaccination history, and discharge summary when available 18 Slide 18 notes The case classification report is then forwarded to the health department, who then communicates the information to the clinician. It is important to point out that this case classification DOES NOT take the place of the medical diagnosis for the patient. It is used for public health surveillance purposes, including measuring disease burden and evaluating trends. It is NOT meant to supersede the physicians final diagnosis for their patient. 19 Specimens to collect and send to CDC for testing of cases of suspected AFM

20 Slide 20 notes This table illustrates which samples to collect and send to CDC for AFM testing. CSF, respiratory, and stool specimens are now all being tested for enteroviruses and results are provided within 7-10 days of receipt at CDC. Stool specimens are also tested for poliovirus and those results are also communicated within 14 days. Remaining CSF and serum specimens will be used to inform the overall pathogenesis and potential etiologies of AFM through pathogen discovery and evaluation of immune-mediated mechanisms. Since these tests are not intended to provide patient-specific diagnoses and are not CLIA-certified, results will not be provided to the submitter. Information learned from surveillance testing will be disseminated rapidly to health departments, providers, and the general public when available. 21 Summary Clinician awareness is critical to understanding more about

this rare illness We need all clinicians to be vigilant for AFM Urgent care/emergency room physicians, general pediatricians, family physicians, nurse practitioners, infectious disease specialists, neurologists, radiologists, infection control practitioners, etc. Suspected cases of AFM should be reported to the health department and specimens should be collected as soon as possible Sharing of information leads to improved understanding of AFM and its pathogenesis to help inform treatment and prevention strategies 22 Slide 22 notes In summary, clinician awareness is critical to helping us better understand this rare illness. That is why we need all clinicians to remain vigilant for AFM, including urgent care and emergency room

physicians, general pediatricians, family physicians, nurse practitioners, infectious disease specialists, neurologists, radiologists, infection control practitioners, and others Suspected cases of AFM should be reported to the health department and samples should be collected as soon as possible. Sharing of information will lead to improved understanding of AFM and its pathogenesis which will help inform treatment and prevention strategies for your patients. 23 For additional information visit: www.cdc.gov/afm Contact CDC at: [email protected] 24

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Thinking Skills: Taking Deaf Students to Higher Levels

    Thinking Skills: Taking Deaf Students to Higher Levels

    Developing Thinking Skills in Deaf Learners: Strategies and Priorities for the Science and Mathematics Teacher Harry G. Lang Rachel C. Lewis National Technical Institute for the Deaf Rochester Institute of Technology Objectives At the end of this unit, the teacher...
  • Recovery-Oriented Cognitive Therapy: Actualizing Recovery ...

    Recovery-Oriented Cognitive Therapy: Actualizing Recovery ...

    Recovery-Oriented Cognitive Therapy: Actualizing Recovery, Resilience, and Flourishing. Paul M. Grant, Ph.D. Ellen Inverso, Psy.D. Aaron Brinen, Psy.D.
  • The ArrayList Class and the enum Keyword

    The ArrayList Class and the enum Keyword

    Introduction to ArrayList. ArrayList<Employee> emps = new ArrayList<Employee>(); Creates an ArrayList of Employee objects. Note that the size of the ArrayList is not specified. ArrayList is a generic class. This means that it takes as input (in angle brackets) the...
  • Baldwin &amp; Wyplosz The Economics of Euroepan Integration ...

    Baldwin & Wyplosz The Economics of Euroepan Integration ...

    General assessment is that labour markets are rigid in most of Europe A simple illustration: real wage stickiness More generally Real wage rigidity just one example Other features include Restrictions on hiring and firing Restrictions on hours worked Minimum wages...
  • Neck space infections - The Medical Post

    Neck space infections - The Medical Post

    Rare infection of superficial neck space causing necrosis of fascia + subcutaneous tissue, initially sparing skin & muscle Term coined in 1952 by Wilson Etiology:Dental infections, skin trauma, quinsy
  • Resourcing Future Generations - Copernicus.org

    Resourcing Future Generations - Copernicus.org

    In addition, porphyry deposits may host valuable by-products including platinum, palladium and tungsten. Approximately 50-60 percent of the world's copper, and 95 percent of molybdenum, comes from porphyry deposits. Although the grade may be low, porphyry copper deposits typically contain...
  • Chapter 5

    Chapter 5

    The most crucial difference was the proximity of the sovereign nation of Mexico, which facilitated constant population movement across the border continually rejuvenating Mexican culture, diplomatic support against egregious abuses, and the persistence of Spanish language as they were attacked...
  • Inbox on Login - Arkansas

    Inbox on Login - Arkansas

    Once you have successfully linked your document and saved your reimbursement you will get a Green Banner, and you will see the Unreimbursed number go down by the number of units you have sked for reimbursement for.