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Political Science: An Introduction Fourteenth Edition Roskin | Cord | Medeiros | Jones Chapter 5 Regimes Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Table 5.1 Main Regime Types Democratic U.S., West Europe Transitional Authoritarian Egypt, Russia Iran, China Totalitarian N. Korea, Cuba

media free curbed state-controlled parties several one dominant none or one one elections competitive flawed

fake or none power alternates among parties rigid one man in hands of small concentrated in group one leader ideology many limited range none or pretend one militant

constitution restrains government selectively interpreted restrains individuals worships state civil liberties protected vulnerable few none

obedient rigged Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Table 5.1 (continued) Main Regime Types Democratic U.S., West Europe Transitional Authoritarian Egypt, Russia Iran, China Totalitarian N. Korea, Cuba interest groups

many and autonomous few and cowed state-supervised no autonomous ones economy market partly market partly state-run state-run military

subordinate to elected officials plays a political role intertwined with regime controlled by ruling party corruption minor widespread pervasive

major Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Representative Democracy (1 of 3) 5.1 Explain why representative democracy is the only feasible kind. There are many different ways to understand the meaning of democracy. Generally speaking, it means rule by the people. Many think that democracy equals freedom, but they are not the same thing. Some are pretend democracies with controlled media, rigged elections and obedient parliaments and parties. Others flux between more or less democratic and are called transitional regimes Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Representative Democracy (2 of 3) 5.1 Explain why representative democracy is the only feasible kind.

Representative Democracy People do not rule directly but through elected and accountable representatives Constitutional Democracy A democracy with a limited government that can wield its authority only in specific ways illiberal Democracies regimes that are elected but lack democratic qualities such as civil rights and limits on government - exist that regularly run roughshod over freedoms at the request of the people. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Characteristics of Democratic Regimes Popular Accountability requires that policy makers must obtain the support of citizens in addition to being accountable directly to citizens. Political Competition means voters must have at least two distinct choices and those parties must have freedom & time to organize and campaign Alternation in Power means power must change hands peacefully from time to time Uncertain Electoral Outcomes elections must have an

element of suspense or non-predetermined result Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Characteristics of Democratic Regimes Popular Representation when representative legislators voice and protect the general interest of voters Mandate Representatives carrying out the specific wishes of the public Trustee Representatives deciding what the public needs without specific instructions from the voters Majority Decision means legislating for the masses not the few. Absolute Majority Half plus one of the number of votes cast Simple Majority Less than half the total # of votes but still enough to win Super Majority A number greater than an absolute majority (60%) Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Characteristics of Democratic Regimes Right of Dissent and Disobedience a citizen or minorities right to resist commands of the government they deem

wrong Political Equality the ability for everyone to participate in politics or have equal political or social protection Popular Consultation means effective government/leaders must know what the people want and be responsive to those needs Free Press means mass media is free to criticize government and can often act as a check to political corruption Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Democracy in Practice: Elitism or Pluralism? (1 of 6) 5.2 Contrast elitist and pluralist theories of democracy. There will always be a struggle over power in society and political power can never be evenly distributed. For political scientists, the core question then is how much elites in society are accountable to the

public and their interests. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Democracy in Practice: Elitism or Pluralism? (2 of 6) 5.2 Contrast elitist and pluralist theories of democracy. There are two general theories that follow: Elite theories of politics These theories maintain that there is very little accountability on the parts of elites to the general public. Pluralist theories of politics These theories maintain that elites are ultimately held accountable to the public through interest groups. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Democracy in Practice: Elitism or Pluralism?

(3 of 6) 5.2 Contrast elitist and pluralist theories of democracy. Two key elite theorists Gaetano Mosca Italian political scientist who argued that government always ends up in the hands of a few. Robert Michels German sociologist developed the iron law of oligarchy Any organization who, no matter how democratic its intention, will end up being run by a few people. Elite theorists are radicals NOT conservatives. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Democracy in Practice: Elitism or Pluralism? (4 of 6)

5.2 Contrast elitist and pluralist theories of democracy. Key pluralist theorist Robert Dahl American political scientist who argued that in any large society decisions are made by small groups, but those groups are ultimately accountable. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Democracy in Practice: Elitism or Pluralism? (5 of 6) 5.2 Contrast elitist and pluralist theories of democracy. Arguments of elitists Money gives elites access to political power and those who wield it. This is enhanced by the connections held by the wealthy. A great deal of influence from elites comes in the form

of campaign contributions. Politics is essentially a a single pyramid with the elites sitting at the top of it. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Democracy in Practice: Elitism or Pluralism? (6 of 6) 5.2 Contrast elitist and pluralist theories of democracy. Pluralists' arguments Politics functions through interest groups that compete with each other for access to government and bargain with each other. This is what Dahl called polyarchy and Lijphart called consociational democracy. Interest groups collide with each other like billiard balls in their attempts to influence policy and it is through their efforts that citizens are heard, because any citizen can form a group to try and influence politics.

Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Totalitarianism 5.3 List the features attributed to totalitarianism. Totalitarian systems are systems of government in which the elites are completely unaccountable. Very difficult to oust the elites. There are very few totalitarian systems left. It is a relatively modern phenomenon and really starts with Lenin's seizure of power in Russia. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. What Is Totalitarianism? (1 of 3) Totalitarian states have several specific characteristics.

There is an all-encompassing ideology Single Party Organized Terror Monopoly of Communications Monopoly of Weapons State Controlled Economy Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Authoritarianism (1 of 2) 5.4 Distinguish authoritarianism from totalitarianism. Authoritarian states differ from totalitarian states in that they do not seek to control all aspects of society. A small group runs the regime and minimizes popular input. There are heavy limits on individual freedoms in exchange for order in society and control.

Dissent is stifled and resistance is generally exterminated through brute force and imprisonment. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Authoritarianism (2 of 2) 5.4 Distinguish authoritarianism from totalitarianism. Some authoritarian states will have trappings of democracy, but they are only for show and really have no meaning. According to Jeanne Kirkpatrick, the main difference between authoritarian states and totalitarian states is that an authoritarian state can reform, but once it slips into totalitarianism there is no way for the system to reform itself. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Democratization of Authoritarian Regimes 5.5 Explain why new democracies often fail.

Economics plays a critical role in the democratic transition. As economies improve, so do the prospects for democracy. Economic growth creates a middle class with a stake in the political system. Rising education levels make the people less susceptible to demagogues and extremist ideas. People are more aware of their interests and express them. Modernization theory Economic growth fosters a large middle class which demands democracy (Aristotle talked about this in Politics best constitutions are controlled by a numerous middle class) Copyright 2017, 2014, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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