ADA Compliant Lecture PowerPoint

ADA Compliant Lecture PowerPoint

E-commerce 2017 business. technology. society. 13th edition Chapter 3 E-commerce Business Models and Concepts Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives 2.1 Identify the key components of e-commerce business models.

2.2 Describe the major B2C business models. 2.3 Describe the major B2B business models. 2.4 Understand key business concepts and strategies applicable to e-commerce. Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

E-commerce Business Models Business model Set of planned activities (sometimes referred to as business processes) designed to result in a profit in a marketplace. A firms business model is its plan or diagram for how it competes, uses its resources, structures its relationships, interfaces with customers, and creates value to sustain itself on the basis of the profits it generates. Business plan Describes a firms business model E-commerce business model

a business model that aims to use and leverage the unique qualities of the Internet, the Web, and the mobile platform Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Eight Key Elements of a Business Model There is no standard business model for an industry or for a target market within an industry. However, over time, the most successful business models in an industry predominate. There are always opportunities

for business model innovation. Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Eight Key Elements of a Business Model 1. Value proposition 2. Revenue model 3. Market opportunity 4. Competitive environment 5. Competitive advantage 6. Market strategy 7. Organizational development 8. Management team Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

1. Value Proposition Why should the customer buy from you? defines how a companys product or service fulfills the needs of customers What value do we deliver to the customer? Which customer needs are we satisfying? What are we offering to each customer segment? Successful e-commerce value propositions: Personalization/customization Reduction of product search, price discovery costs Facilitation of transactions by managing product delivery Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

1. Value Proposition Value propositions exist in quantitative and qualitative areas Quantitative : Price Cost reduction Risk reduction

Convenience Usability Qualitative Newness Performance Design Brand

Customization Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1. Value Proposition Qualitative Newness

Performance Design Brand Customization Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1. Value Proposition http://www.zara.com/om/en/kids-c390010.html Qualitative

Newness Performance Design Brand Customization Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1. Value Proposition http://www.walmart.com/browse/all/all/0?cat_id=0&facet=pickup_and_delivery:F REE%20Pickup%20Today

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1. Value Proposition http://www.amazon.com/gp/goldbox/ref=nav_cs_gb/175-6180810-5802103 Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1. Value Proposition http://www.apple.com/ Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1. Value Proposition- APPLE

Qualitative Newness Performance Design Brand Customization

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1. Value Proposition https://techdirect.dell.com/portal/Login.aspx Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 2. Revenue Model How will you earn money? Major types of revenue models: Advertising revenue model Subscription revenue model Freemium strategy

Transaction fee revenue model Sales revenue model Affiliate revenue model Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1-16 2. Revenue Model - Advertising a company provides a forum for advertisements and receives fees from advertisers (yahoo.com) Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

1-17 2. Revenue Model - Subscription a company offers its users content or services and charges a subscription fee for access to some or all of its offerings (Pandora.com) Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1-18 2. Revenue Model - freemium strategy companies give away a certain level of product or services for free, but then charge

a subscription fee for premium levels of the product or service (Pandora.com) Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1-19 2. Revenue Model - transaction fee a company receives a fee for enabling or executing a transaction (eBay.com) Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1-20

2. Revenue Model - sales revenue a company derives revenue by selling goods, information, or services (amazon.com) Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1-21 2. Revenue Model - affiliate a company steers business to an affiliate and receives a referral fee or percentage of the revenue from any resulting sales (skyscanner)

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1-22 2. Revenue Model - Streams Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1-23 2. Revenue Model - Streams Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

1-24 2. Revenue Model - Streams Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Insight on Society: Foursquare: Check Your Privacy at the Door Class discussion: What revenue model does Foursquare use? What other revenue models might be appropriate? Are privacy concerns the only shortcoming of location-based mobile services?

Should business firms be allowed to call cell phones with advertising messages based on location? Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 3. Market Opportunity What marketspace do you intend to serve and what is its size? Marketspace: Area of actual or potential commercial value in which company intends to operate Realistic market opportunity: Defined by revenue potential in each market niche in which company hopes to compete Market opportunity typically divided into smaller

niches Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1-27 3. Market Opportunity - Customer Segments Defines the different groups of people or organizations to serve Separate segments if:

Needs require and justify distinct offer Reached through different channels Require different types of relationships Are willing to pay for different aspects Have different profitabilities Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1-28 3. Market Opportunity - Customer Segments Customer segments may exist in different

types Mass market One large group comprising only one segment Niche market Specific, specialized customer group Segmented Slightly different customer groups Diversified Multiple unrelated customer segments Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

1-29 3. Market Opportunity - Channels Describes how a company communicates with and reaches its customer segments to deliver a value proposition 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Raising awareness of the products and services

Helping customers evaluate the value proposition Allowing customers to purchase Delivering a value proposition Providing post-purchase customer support Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1-30 3. Market Opportunity - Channels Channels demand consideration of key questions Through which channels do our customer segments want to be reached?

How can we integrate our channels? What measures define which channels work best? Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1-31 3. Market Opportunity - Channels - Google Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1-32 3. Market Opportunity - Customer Relationships

Describes the types of relationships a company establishes with specific customer segments Driven by motivations to include: Customer acquisition Customer retention Upselling Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1-33 3. Market Opportunity - Customer Relationships Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

1-34 3. Market Opportunity - Customer Relationships Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Who else occupies your intended marketspace? Other companies selling similar products in the same marketspace Includes both direct and indirect competitors Influenced by:

Number and size of active competitors Each competitors market share Competitors profitability Competitors pricing Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5-36 4. Competitive Environment - Competitor Analysis What is a Competitor Analysis? A competitor analysis is a detailed analysis of a firms competition.

It helps a firm understand the positions of its major competitors and the opportunities that are available. A competitive analysis grid is a tool for organizing the information a firm collects about its competitors. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment - Identifying Competitors 5-37 Types of Competitors New Ventures Face

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Porters Competitive Forces Model (1 of 3) Why do some firms become leaders in their industry? Michael Porters competitive forces model Provides general view of firm, its competitors, and environment Five competitive forces shape fate of firm:

Traditional competitors New market entrants Substitute products and services Customers Suppliers Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment

Porters Competitive Forces Model Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Porters Competitive Forces Model (2 of 3) Traditional competitors All firms share market space with competitors who are continuously devising new products, services, efficiencies, and switching costs New market entrants Some industries have high barriers to entry, for example,

computer chip business New companies have new equipment, younger workers, but little brand recognition Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Porters Competitive Forces Model (3 of 3) Substitute products and services Substitutes customers might use if your prices become too high, for example, iTunes substitutes for CDs Customers

Can customers easily switch to competitor's products? Can they force businesses to compete on price alone in transparent marketplace? Suppliers Market power of suppliers when firm cannot raise prices as fast as suppliers Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Rivalry Among Existing Firms 1 of 3 Rivalry Among Existing Firms In most industries, the major determinant of industry

profitability is the level of competition among existing firms. Some industries are fiercely competitive, to the point where prices are pushed below the level of costs, and industry-wide losses occur. In other industries, competition is much less intense and price competition is subdued. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Rivalry Among Existing Firms 2 of 3 Factors that determine the intensity of the rivalry among existing firms in an industry.

Number and balance of competitors Degree of difference between products The more competitors there are, the more likely it is that one or more will try to gain customers by cutting its price. The degree to which products differ from one product to another affects industry rivalry.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Rivalry Among Existing Firms 3 of 3 Factors that determine the intensity of the rivalry among existing firms in an industry (continued) Growth rate of an industry Level of fixed costs

The competition among firms in a slow-growth industry is stronger than among those in fastgrowth industries. Firms that have high fixed costs must sell a higher volume of their product to reach the break-even point than firms with low fixed costs. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Threat of New Entrants 1 of 6 Threat of New Entrants

If the firms in an industry are highly profitable, the industry becomes a magnet to new entrants. Unless something is done to stop this, the competition in the industry will increase, and average industry profitability will decline. Firms in an industry try to keep the number of new entrants low by erecting barriers to entry. A barrier to entry is a condition that creates a disincentive for a new firm to enter an industry. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment

Threat of New Entrants 2 of 6 Barriers to Entry Barrier to Entry Economies of Scale Explanation Industries that are characterized by large economies of scale are difficult for new firms to enter, unless they are willing to accept a cost disadvantage. Product differentiation Industries such as the soft drink industry that are

characterized by firms with strong brands are difficult to break into without spending heavily on advertising. Capital requirements The need to invest large amounts of money to gain entrance to an industry is another barrier to entry. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Threat of New Entrants 3 of 6

5-47 Barriers to Entry (continued) Barrier to Entry Explanation Cost advantages independent of size Existing firms may have cost advantages not related to size. For example, the existing firms in an industry may have purchased land when it was less expensive

than it is today. Access to distribution channels Distribution channels are often hard to crack. This is particularly true in crowded markets, such as the convenience store market. Government and legal barriers Some industries, such as broadcasting, require the granting of a license by a public authority to compete.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Threat of New Entrants 4 of 6 Nontraditional Barriers to Entry It is difficult for start-ups to execute barriers to entry that are expensive, such as economies of scale, because money is usually tight. Start-ups have to rely on nontraditional barriers to entry to discourage new entrants, such as assembling a world-class management team that would be difficult for another company to replicate.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Threat of New Entrants 5 of 6 Nontraditional Barriers to Entry Barrier to Entry Explanation Strength of management team

If a start-up puts together a world-class management team, it may give potential rivals pause in taking on the start-up in its chosen industry. First-mover advantage If a start-up pioneers an industry or a new concept within an industry, the name recognition the start-up establishes may create a barrier to entry. Passion of the management team and employees

If the employees of a start-up are motivated by the unique culture of a start-up, and anticipate a large financial reward, this is a combination that cannot be replicated by larger firms. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Threat of New Entrants 6 of 6 Nontraditional Barriers to Entry (continued) Barrier to Entry

Explanation Unique business model If a start-up is able to construct a unique business model and establish a network of relationships that makes the business model work, this set of advantages creates a barrier to entry. Internet domain name Some Internet domain names are so spot-on that

they give a start-up a meaningful leg up in terms of ecommerce opportunities. Inventing a new approach to an industry If a start-up invents a new approach to an industry and executes it in an exemplary fashion, these factors create a barrier to entry for potential imitators. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment

Bargaining Power of Suppliers 1 of 3 5-51 Bargaining Power of Suppliers Suppliers can suppress the profitability of the industries to which they sell by raising prices or reducing the quality of the components they provide. If a supplier reduces the quality of the components it supplies, the quality of the finished product will suffer, and the manufacturer will eventually have to lower its price. If the suppliers are powerful relative to the firms in the industry to which they sell, industry profitability can suffer.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Bargaining Power of Suppliers 2 of 3 Factors that have an impact on the ability of suppliers to exert pressure on buyers Supplier concentration When there are only a few suppliers that supply a critical product to a large number of buyers, the supplier has an advantage.

Switching costs Switching costs are the fixed costs that buyers encounter when switching or changing from one supplier to another. If switching costs are high, a buyer will be less likely to switch suppliers. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Bargaining Power of Suppliers 3 of 3 Factors that have an impact on the ability of suppliers to exert

pressure on buyers (continued) Attractiveness of substitutes Threat of forward integration Supplier power is enhanced if there are no attractive substitutes for the product or services the supplier offers. The power of a supplier is enhanced if there is a

credible possibility that the supplier might enter the buyers industry. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Bargaining Power of Buyers 1 of 3 Bargaining Power of Buyers Buyers can suppress the profitability of the industries from which they purchase by demanding price concessions or increases in quality. For example, the automobile industry is dominated by a handful of large companies that buy products from

thousands of suppliers in different industries. This allows the automakers to suppress the profitability of the industries from which they buy by demanding price reductions. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Competitive Environment Bargaining Power of Buyers 2 of 3 Factors that have an impact on the ability of suppliers to exert pressure on buyers Buyer group concentration

If there are only a few large buyers, and they buy from a large number of suppliers, they can pressure the suppliers to lower costs and thus affect the profitability of the industries from which they buy. Buyers costs The greater the importance of an item is to a buyer, the more sensitive the buyer will be to the price it pays. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

4. Competitive Environment Bargaining Power of Buyers 3 of 3 Factors that have an impact on the ability of buyers to exert pressure on suppliers (continued) Degree of standardization of suppliers products The degree to which a suppliers product differs from its competitors affects the buyers bargaining power.

Threat of backward integration The power of buyers is enhanced if there is a credible threat that the buyer might enter the suppliers industry. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5. Competitive Advantage What special advantages does your firm bring to the marketspace?

Is your product superior to or cheaper to produce than your competitors? Important concepts: Asymmetries: exists whenever one participant in a market has more resources than other participants. Ex. Apple iTunes First-mover advantage: a competitive market advantage for a firm that results from being the first into a marketplace with a serviceable product or service. Ex. Amazon Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5. Competitive Advantage Complementary resources: resources and assets not directly

involved in the production of the product but required for success, such as marketing, management, financial assets, and reputation. Unfair competitive advantage: occurs when one firm develops an advantage based on a factor that other firms cannot purchase. Ex. brands Leverage: when a company uses its competitive advantages to achieve more advantage in surrounding markets Perfect markets: a market in which there are no competitive advantages or asymmetries because all firms have equal access to all the factors of production. Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5. Competitive Advantage - Strategies for

Dealing with Competitive Forces (1 of 3) Four generic strategies for dealing with competitive forces, enabled by using IT: Low-cost leadership Product differentiation Focus on market niche Strengthen customer and supplier intimacy Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

5. Competitive Advantage - Strategies for Dealing with Competitive Forces (2 of 3) Low-cost leadership Produce products and services at a lower price than competitors Example: Walmarts efficient customer response system Product differentiation Enable new products or services, greatly change customer convenience and experience Example: Google, Nike, Apple Mass customization Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

5. Competitive Advantage - Strategies for Dealing with Competitive Forces (3 of 3) Focus on market niche Use information systems to enable a focused strategy on a single market niche; specialize Example: Hilton Hotels OnQ system Strengthen customer and supplier intimacy Use information systems to develop strong ties and loyalty with customers and suppliers Increase switching costs Examples: Chrysler, Amazon, Starbucks

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 5. Competitive Advantage - The Internets Impact on Competitive Advantage Transformation or threat to some industries Examples: travel agency, printed encyclopedia, media Competitive forces still at work, but rivalry more intense Universal standards allow new rivals, entrants to market New opportunities for building brands and loyal customer bases

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 6. Market Strategy How do you plan to promote your products or services to attract your target audience? Details how a company intends to enter market and attract customers Best business concepts will fail if not properly marketed to potential customers For instance, Twitter, YouTube, and Pinterest have a social network marketing strategy that encourages users to post their content for free, build personal profile pages, contact their friends, and build a community.

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7. Organizational Development What types of organizational structures within the firm are necessary to carry out the business plan? Describes how firm will organize work Typically, divided into functional departments As company grows, hiring moves from generalists to specialists Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 8. Management Team Employees of the company responsible for

making the business model work What kind of backgrounds should the companys leaders have? A strong management team: Can make the business model work Can give credibility to outside investors Has market-specific knowledge Has experience in implementing business plans Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Eight key elements of a business model and the key questions

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Raising Capital Seed capital: typically, an entrepreneurs personal funds derived from savings, credit card advances, home equity loans, or from family and friends. Elevator pitch short two-to-three minute presentation aimed at convincing investors to invest Traditional sources Incubators, typically provide a small amount of funding and also

an array of services to start-up companies. Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Elements of an Elevator Pitch Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Raising Capital Angel investors: typically wealthy individuals or a group of individuals who invest their own money in exchange for an equity share in the stock of a business; often are the first outside investors in a start-up Commercial banks, venture capital firms: typically invest funds they manage for

other investors; usually later-stage investors Strategic partners Crowdfunding involves using the Internet to enable individuals to collectively contribute money to support a project. Ex. Kickstarter and Indiegogo Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Insight on Business: Crowdfunding Takes Off Class Discussion What types of projects and companies might be able to most successfully use crowdfunding?

Are there any negative aspects to crowdfunding? What obstacles are presented in the use of crowdfunding as a method to fund startups? Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Categorizing E-commerce Business Models No one correct way Text categorizes according to: E-commerce sector (e.g., B2B) E-commerce technology (e.g., m-commerce) Similar models appear in different sectors Companies may use multiple business models

Ex: eBay: a market creator in the B2C and C2C e-commerce sectors, using both the traditional Internet/Web and mobile platforms E-commerce enablers Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved B2C Business Models E-tailer Community provider (social network) Content provider Portal Transaction broker Market creator

Service provider Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved B2C Models: E-tailer Online version of traditional retailer Revenue model: Sales Variations: Virtual merchant: operate only in the virtual world, without any ties to physical locations. (Ex. Amazon) Bricks-and-clicks: are subsidiaries or divisions of existing physical stores and carry the same products. (Ex. Walmart) Catalog merchant: Online version of direct mail catalog. Manufacturer-direct: Manufacturer uses online channel to sell direct to customer (Ex: Dell)

Low barriers to entry Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved B2C Models: Community Provider Provide online environment (social network) where people with similar interests can transact, share content, and communicate. Examples: Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Pinterest Revenue models: Typically hybrid, combining advertising, subscriptions, sales, transaction fees, and so on.

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved B2C Models: Content Provider Digital content on the Web: News, music, video, text, artwork Ex. Harvard Business Review Revenue models: Use variety of models, including advertising, subscription; sales of digital goods Key to success is typically owning the content Variations: Syndication: distribute content produced by others.

Aggregators: collect information from a wide variety of sources and then add value to that information through post-aggregation services. Ex: Shopzilla Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Insight on Technology: Will the Connected Car Become the Next Hot Entertainment Vehicle? Class Discussion What value does the Internet of Things (IoT) have for businesses? What impact might IoT have on the content industry? What issues do connected cars raise? Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

B2C Business Models: Portal Search plus an integrated package of content and services Revenue models: Advertising, referral fees, transaction fees, subscriptions for premium services Variations: Horizontal/general: define their marketspace to include all users of the Internet. (Ex: Yahoo) Vertical/specialized (vortal): focused around a particular subject matter or market segment. (Ex: sailnet) Search

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved B2C Models: Transaction Broker Process online transactions for consumers Processes transactions for consumers that are normally handled in person, by phone, or by mail. Primary value propositionsaving time and money Revenue model: Transaction fees Industries using this model: Financial services Travel services

Job placement services Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved B2C Models: Market Creator Create digital environment where buyers and sellers can meet and transact Examples: Priceline, eBay (no inventory or production costs). Revenue model: Transaction fees, fees to merchants for access On-demand service companies (sharing economy): platforms that allow people to sell services. Examples: Uber: (founded in 2009) currently operates in over 480 cities in 69 countries around the world.

Airbnb: founded in 2008, operates in more than 190 countries and 34,000 cities, lists over 2 million rooms available for rent. Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved B2C Models: Service Provider Online services Example: GoogleGoogle Maps, Gmail, and so on Value proposition Valuable, convenient, time-saving, low-cost alternatives to traditional service providers Revenue models: Sales of services, subscription fees, advertising, sales of

marketing data Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved B2B Business Models Net marketplaces E-distributor E-procurement Exchange

Industry consortium Private industrial network Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved B2B Business Models Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved B2B Models: E-distributor Version of retail and wholesale store, MRO (maintenance, repair, operation) goods, and indirect goods

Owned by one company seeking to serve many customers Revenue model: Sales of goods Example: Grainger Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved B2B Models: E-procurement Creates digital markets where participants transact for indirect goods B2B service providers, SaaS and PaaS providers Scale economies: efficiencies that arise from increasing the size of a business

Revenue model: Service fees, supply-chain management, fulfillment services Example: Ariba Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved B2B Models: Exchanges Independently owned vertical digital marketplace for direct inputs Revenue model: Transaction, commission fees Create powerful competition between suppliers Tend to force suppliers into powerful price competition; number of exchanges has dropped

dramatically Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved B2B Models: Industry Consortia Industry-owned vertical digital marketplace open to select suppliers More successful than exchanges Sponsored by powerful industry players Strengthen traditional purchasing behavior Revenue model: Transaction, commission fees Example: SupplyOn

Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Private Industrial Networks Digital network used to coordinate among firms engaged in business together Typically evolve out of large companys internal enterprise system Key, trusted, long-term suppliers invited to network Example: Walmarts network for suppliers Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved How E-commerce Changes Business

Industry Structures: refers to the nature of the players in an industry and their relative bargaining power. E-commerce changes industry structure by changing: Rivalry among existing competitors Barriers to entry Threat of new substitute products Strength of suppliers Bargaining power of buyers Industry structural analysis Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

How E-commerce Changes Business E-commerce has many impacts on industry structure and competitive conditions. From the perspective of a single firm, these changes can have negative or positive implications depending on the situation. In some cases, an

entire industry can be disrupted, while at the same time, a new industry is born. Individual firms can Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Industry Value Chains Set of activities performed by suppliers, manufacturers, transporters, distributors, and retailers that transform raw inputs into final products and services Internet reduces cost of information and other

transactional costs Leads to greater operational efficiencies, lowering cost, prices, adding value for customers Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 2.4: E-commerce and Industry Value Chains Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Firm Value Chains Activities that a firm engages in to create final products from raw inputs

Each step adds value Effect of Internet: Increases operational efficiency Enables product differentiation Enables precise coordination of steps in chain Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 2.5: E-commerce and Firm Value Chains Every firm can be characterized by a set of value-adding primary and secondary activities performed by a variety of actors in the firm. A simple firm value chain performs five primary value-adding steps: inbound logistics,

operations, outbound logistics, sales and marketing, and after sales service. Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Firm Value Webs Networked business ecosystem Uses Internet technology to coordinate the value chains of business partners Coordinates a firms suppliers with its own production needs using an Internet-based supply chain management system Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 2.6: Internet-enabled Value Web

Internet technology enables firms to create an enhanced value web in cooperation with their strategic alliance and partner firms, customers, and direct and indirect suppliers. Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Business Strategy Plan for achieving superior long-term returns on capital invested: that is, profit Five generic strategies

Product/service differentiation Cost competition Scope Focus/market niche Customer intimacy Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved E-commerce Technology and Business Model Disruption Disruptive technologies Digital disruption Sustaining technology

Stages Disruptors introduce new products of lower quality Disruptors improve products New products become superior to existing products Incumbent companies lose market share Copyright 2018, 2017, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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