A Comparison of Systematic Screening Tools at the Elementary ...
Low-Intensity Strategies: Using Instructional Feedback to Support Instruction Low-Intensity Strategies for Academics and Behavior Opportunities to Respond Behavior Specific Praise Active Supervision Instructional Feedback High p Requests Precorrection Incorporating Choice Self-Monitoring Behavior Contracts Agenda What is instructional feedback?
Why is instructional feedback effective? What does the supporting research for instructional feedback say? What are the benefits and challenges? How do I implement instructional feedback in my classroom? Checklist for Success How well is it working? Examining the Effects Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered Model of Prevention (Lane, Kalberg, & Menzies, 2009) Goal: Reduce Harm Specialized individual systems for students with high-risk Tertiary 5% Prevention (Tier 3) 15%
Goal: Reverse Harm Specialized group systems for students at-risk Secondary Prevention (Tier 2) Goal: Prevent Harm School/classroom-wide systems for all students, staff, & settings PBIS Framework 80% Validated Curricula Primary Prevention (Tier 1) Academic Behavioral
Social Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Comprehensive, Integrative, Three-tiered (CI3T) Models of Support Low Intensity Strategies Basic Classroom Management Effective Instruction Low Intensity Strategies Behavior Contracts Self-Monitoring -Functional Assessment-Based Interventions Higher Intensity Strategies Assess, Design, Implement, and
Evaluate Assessment CI3T Primary Plan Academics Social Behavior What is instructional feedback? Teaching strategy to: Clarify misinformation Confirm understandings Fine-tune understandings Restructure current schemas Produces learning by delivering content related information and reinforcement that positively affects motivation
effort engagement (Butler & Winne, 1995; Kulhavy & Wagner, 1993) What is instructional feedback? Used when students have base of understanding working toward proficiency and fluency Two-fold Function Teachers gain students perception of instructions adjust instructional planning Students benefit from positive specific feedback increase intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000) increase persistence on future difficult tasks (Kamins & Dweck, 1999)
The Learning Process Cues Feedback and/ or Reinforcement Participation (Heward, 1994; Lysakowski & Walberg, 1982; Miller & Dollard, 1941) Purpose To close the gap between expected and current performance in academics, behavior, and social skills (Hattie, 2009) The learner must have an opportunity to engage in an action in response to the feedback (Gable, Hester, Rock, & Hughes, 2009) Feedback Model
Where am I going? What are the goals? Where do I go How am I going? next? What activities What progress is need to be being made undertaken to toward the goals? make better progress? Hattie and Timperley (2007) Effective instructional feedback provides information on the learning process and content acquisition instead of the correct
response Examples How am I going? Jorge, you are using the 4-step process we learned to accurately complete the problem. Where do I go next? Celia, please write the acronym for the 4-step process next to the problem and cross off each step as you complete it. That will help you keep the order of the steps. Error Correction Celia, using the mnemonic helped you apply the process to solve the problem accurately. Provide feedback on malleable characteristics such as effort. You included all of the elements of the essay; you did a good job using the rubric to write your paper Why is Instructional Feedback Effective? Serves as a motivator and reinforcer
Provides instructional information Cues students to focus on key processes, information, and concepts (Butler & Winne, 1995) Specific and offers support to correct content and misunderstandings (Harks et al., 2014) Positive, proactive approach for correcting learning errors Increases motivation (Kamins & Dweck, 1999) Supports intrinsic motivation Why is Instructional Feedback Effective? Feedback should be related to effort and actions that are malleable, not based upon ability a criterion or the individuals previous performance Negative effects occur when students are compared to peers (Harks et al., 2014) Critical feedback creates doubt, lowers selfconfidence, and lowers motivation to attempt difficult tasks Particularly true for students with EBD and LD
(Alber, Heward, & Hippler, 1999) What does the supporting research for instructional feedback say? Increased on-task behavior for students with EBD in the general education classroom (Allday et al., 2012) Improve students math outcomes with use of strategy feedback (process) and outcome feedback (accuracy of response) working memory mediated the outcomes (Fyfe, DeCaro, & Rittle-Johnson, 2015) Instructional feedback related to schoolwide expectations resulted in reductions in behavioral incidents over two years (Simonsen, Britton, & Young, 2010) Supporting Research See Instructional Feedback Resource Guide for additional supporting research and information.
What are the benefits and challenges? Benefits Challenges Large group Targeted small group Minimal time Creates safe learning
environment Supports students in demonstrating expected behaviors Improves academic outcomes Increases engagement Determining the best type of feedback Carefully selecting words to use Students may perceive feedback as critical if care is not taken Measuring the effectiveness of feedback
How do I implement instructional feedback in my classroom? Checklist for Success Step 1 Identify learning goals Step 2 Provide instruction to meet established goals Step 3 Provide clear directions and checks for understanding Step 4 Opportunities for practice and feedback are planned
How do I implement instructional feedback in my classroom? Checklist for Success Step 5 Implement active supervision and provide instructional feedback Step 6 Provide time and direction for students to review work or have additional opportunities to practice Step 7 Evaluate instructional practices Step 8 Offer students an opportunity to give feedback on how instructional feedback is being offered
How do I increase Instructional Feedback in my classroom? Implementation checklist for success Step 1: Identify learning goals. Step 2: Provide instruction to meet established goals. Step 3: Provide clear directions and checks for understanding. Step 4: Opportunities for practice and feedback are planned. Step 5: Implement active supervision and provide instructional feedback. Step 6: Provide time and direction for students to review work or have additional opportunities to practice. Step 7: Evaluate instructional practices. Step 8: Offer students an opportunity to give feedback on how instructional feedback is being offered.
See Instructional Feedback Implementation Checklist for Success How well is it working? Examining the Effects Treatment Integrity Is it happening? Social Validity Experimental Design What do How well did stakeholders this support think about work for this
the goals, student? procedures, and outcomes? Instructional Feedback Student Outcomes Panel B. Paolas Academic Engagement and Spanish Assignment Accuracy Baseline A1 Feedback B1 Withdrawal A2 Feedback B2 AE T acy
r u Acc Figure 5.1 Examining the effects: Students academic engagement and assignment accuracy: Percentage during Spanish class. Hypothetical Illustration (Lane, Menzies, Ennis, & Oakes, 2015) Ensuring the Strategy is in Place: Treatment Integrity Have structures in place to monitor whether instructional feedback is carried out as intended. Treatment integrity checklist items: 1. I identified and shared learning goals. 2. I provided instruction to meet the established goals. 3. I provided clear directions and checked for understanding. 4. Students had opportunities to practice.
5. I used active supervision and provided instructional feedback. 6. I provided time, direction for students to review work or have additional opportunities to practice. 7. I evaluated instruction based on student response. See Instructional Feedback Treatment Integrity Checklist What does the student think about it? See Instructional Feedback Social Validity Student Completed by the student(s) participating in the intervention at two time points: Pre and Post
Intervention What does the teacher think about it? See Social Validity AdaptedIRP15 Adult Completed by the teacher(s) and parent(s) involved in the intervention at two time points: Pre and Post Intervention Sample Elementary Intervention Grid Support Description Instructional Feedback
Instructional feedback refers to detailed, specific information for students from a teacher or peer to confirm, finetune, clarify, and restructure current schemas. Verbal, written, or technology based specific feedback on processes and progress. School-wide Data: Entry Criteria
One of more of the following: Behavior: SRSS-E7: Moderate (4-8) SRSS-I5: Moderate (2-3) SRSS-E7: High (9-21) SRSS-I5: High (4-15) Ranking of 1, 2, or 3 on the Motivation to Learn subscale of the SSiS-PSG Two or more office discipline referrals (ODRs) within a grading period ___ AND ___ OR Academic: Three or more assignments scoring 79% or below within a grading period AIMSweb: intensive or strategic level (math or reading) Progress report: Targeted for Growth for academic learning
behaviors Data to Monitor Progress Exit Criteria Zero missing Student performance targeted for assignments in a improvement (e.g., grading period homework grades, quiz All assignments grades, test grades, % scoring 80% or of work completed, higher in a grading academic engaged period time % of intervals).
and SRSS-E7: Low (0-3) SRSS-I5: Low (0-1) Treatment integrity Implementation or Ranking of 4 or 5 checklist Treatment on the Motivation integrity checklist to Learn subscale of SSiS-PSG Social validity IRP-15 (teacher) Studentcompleted survey
(Lane, Menzies, Ennis, & Oakes, 2015) Sample Middle/High School Intervention Grid Support Description Instructional Instructional Feedback feedback refers to detailed, specific information for students from a teacher or peer to confirm, finetune, clarify, and restructure current schemas. Verbal, written, or
technology based specific feedback on processes and progress. School-wide Data: Entry Criteria One of more of the following: Behavior: SRSS-E7: Moderate (4-8) SRSS-I7: Moderate (cut scores coming soon) Data to Monitor Progress Exit Criteria Zero missing
Student performance targeted for assignments in improvement (e.g., target class(es) for homework grades, quiz a grading period grades, test grades, % 2.5 GPA or higher in of work completed, a grading period academic engaged and SRSS-E7: Low (0-3) time % of intervals). SRSS-I5: Low (0-1) Treatment integrity or Ranking of 4 or 5 Implementation checklist
on the Motivation Treatment to Learn subscale of integrity checklist SSiS-PSG SRSS-E7: High (9-21) SRSS-I7: High (cut scores coming soon) Ranking of 1, 2, or 3 on the Motivation to Learn subscale of the SSiS-PSG Two or more office discipline referrals within a grading period ___ AND ___ OR Academic: Two or more missing assignments in any class Social validity Three or more assignments in any
IRP-15 (teacher) class at C or below Student Progress report: Targeted for completed survey Growth for academic learning behaviors (Lane, Menzies, Ennis, & Oakes, 2015) CI3T Ticket Examples Will you please Determine when you will use instructional feedback. Make a list of instructional feedback statements you can use: In your classroom during various instructional activities. In other key areas in your building (use school expectation matrix).
Plan: Implementation Checklist for Success Instructional Feedback Lets talk Related Resource Lane, K. L., Menzies, H. M., Ennis, R. P., & Oakes, W. P. (2015). Supporting behavior for school success: A step-by-step guide to key strategies. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Thank you! Questions [email protected]
Resources Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered (CI3T) Models of Prevention: Step by Step Guide (2014). A special issue of Preventing School Failure, volume 58, issue 3 www.tandfonline.com/toc/vpsf20/58/3 Lane, K. L., Menzies, H. M, Oakes, W. P., & Kalberg, J. R. (2012). Systematic screenings of behavior to support instruction: From preschool to high school. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Recommended Resources Lane, K. L., Menzies, H. M., Bruhn, A.L., & Crnobori, M. (2011). Managing Challenging Behaviors in Schools: ResearchBased Strategies That Work. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Lane, K. L., Kalberg, J. R. & Menzies, H. M. (2009). Developing Schoolwide Programs to Prevent and Manage Problem Behaviors: A Step-by-Step Approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Lane, K.L., Menzies, H.M., Ennis, R.P., & Oakes, W. P. (2015). Supporting Behavior for School Success: A Step-by-Step Guide to Key Strategies. New York, NY: Guilford.
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