A Bloody Conflict Trench Warfare Complex dug-out networks Used to protect troops Almost all fighting took place in the
trenches most of the fighting sites hardly moved at all throughout the entire war TRENCH WARFARE CLIP No-mans-land
The space between opposing trenches Very Dangerous In order to prevent troops from crossing, barbed wire was placed in front of trenches
Rats Ate the corpses Grew to huge sizes
Robert Graves: "Rats came up from the canal, fed on the plentiful corpses, and multiplied exceedingly. While I stayed here with the Welch, a new officer joined the company and, in token of welcome, was given a dug-out containing a spring-bed. When he turned in that night he heard a scuffling, shone his torch on the bed, and found two rats on his blanket tussling for the possession of a severed hand."
Lice 97% of men had lice because there
were hardly any sanitary conditions Spread throughout entire units Lice carried diseases such as Trench Fever Military tried to combat it with delousing techniques One night, as we lay in bed after doing our two hours' sentry - we did two hours on and two hours
off - my friend Jock said 'damn this, I cannot stand it any longer!' He took off his tunic - we slept in these - then he took off his jersey, then his shirt. He put his shirt in the middle of the dug-out floor and put his jersey and tunic on again. As we sat up in bed watching the shirt he had taken off and put it on the floor it actually lifted; it was swarming with lice. Interview Henry Gregory
Trenchfoot Men would stand for hours in water
logged trenches They couldnt remove wet socks or boots, feet would often go numb If untreated it results in amputation The military began requiring regular changing of socks and boots, as well as the use of whale oil to protect feet from getting wet
The trench, when we reached it, was half full of mud and water. We set to work to try and drain it. Our efforts were hampered by the fact that the French, who had first occupied it, had buried their dead in the bottom and sides. Every stroke of the pick encountered a body. The smell was awful.
Memoirs If you have never had trench feet described to you. I will tell you. Your feet swell to two or three times their normal size and go completely dead. You could stick a bayonet into them and not feel a thing. If you are fortunate enough not to lose your feet and the swelling begins to go down. It is then
that the intolerable, indescribable agony begins. I have heard men cry and even scream with the pain and many had to have their feet and legs amputated. Post War Interview Sergeant Harry Roberts Shellshock Symptoms include tiredness, irritability, giddiness, lack of
concentration and headaches, ranging from moderate panic attacks to effective mental and physical paralysis 80,000 cases in the British army alone Sounds like PTSD New Technology
This was a whole new war with technology Machine gun is invented With a rifle ten rounds per minute could be fired
A Machine gun could fire ten rounds per second Responsible for most casualties during the war Poison Gas
First used by the Germans in 1915 Mustard gas and chlorine gas Fumes cause vomiting, blindness, and suffocation Gas mask was developed
I wish those people who write so glibly about this being a holy war, and the orators who talk so much about going on no matter how long the war lasts and what it may mean, could see a case - to say nothing of 10 cases of mustard gas in its early stages - could see the poor things all burnt and blistered all over with great suppurating blisters, with blind eyes - sometimes temporally, some times permanently - all sticky and stuck together, and always fighting for breath, their voices a whisper, saying their throats are closing and
they know they are going to choke. Field Nurse 1918 Vera Brittain Armored Tank Introduced by the British
Slow and mechanically unreliable It could cross barb wire and trenches, but the technology was still not good enough The First Tanks in Action, September 15,1916 We heard strange throbbing noises, and lumbering slowly towards us came three huge mechanical
monsters such as we had never seen before. My first impression was that they looked ready to topple on their nosesInstead of going on to the German lines the three tanks assigned to us straddled our front line, stopped and then opened up a murderous machine-gun fire, enfilading us left and right. There they sat, squat monstrous things, noses stuck up in the air, crushing the sides of our trench out of shape with their machineguns swiveling around and firing like mad. - Bert Chaney
Zeppelins Developed by Germans Giant, rigid balloons Used to drop bombs on British warships
Airplanes At first used for scouting Then used to attack Zeppelins Once machine guns were put in, they were used to shoot down other aircraft DOG-FIGHTS : two planes fighting each other Planes were difficult to fly and easy to attack
Airplanes/Pilots lasted about two Bring it all together What do you think is the worst condition of trench warfare? The Americans Arrive
2 million troops Boosted the allies Demoralized the Germans Winning the war at Sea
Convoys: Merchant ships with troop transports Destroyers would protect and escort the convoys across the Atlantic Russia Leaves the War
Riots break out in Russia over the scarcity of food and oil Russia is dealing with a Revolution in their country Government is overthrown,
communists take over, Russia pulls out of World War I Germanys Last Offensive
Last massive attack by Germany to try and take Paris March 1918 Warfare used was poison gas and huge artillery bombardment American and French troops blocked offensive and held ground The Battle of the Argonne Forest
Counterattack by the Allies Most massive attack in American History Over 600,000 American troops
Germans slowly fell back between September to November Armistice An agreement to stop fighting The armistice took place November 1918 on the 11th hour, the 11th day,
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