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Chapter 5 The Integumentary System Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Karen Dunbar Kareiva Ivy Tech Community College Why This Matters

Understanding the integumentary system will help you evaluate and treat injuries to the skin such as burns 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Integumentary System Integumentary system consists of: Skin Hair Nails Sweat glands Sebaceous (oil) glands 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

5.1 Structure of skin Skin consists of two distinct regions: Epidermis: superficial region Consists of epithelial tissue and is avascular Dermis: underlies epidermis Mostly fibrous connective tissue, vascular Hypodermis (superficial fascia) Subcutaneous layer deep to skin Not part of skin but shares some functions Mostly adipose tissue that absorbs shock and insulates Anchors skin to underlying structures: mostly muscles

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.1 Skin structure. Hair shaft Dermal papillae Epidermis Papillary layer Subpapillary plexus Sweat pore Appendages of skin Eccrine sweat gland

Arrector pili muscle Sebaceous (oil) gland Hair follicle Hair root Dermis Reticular layer Hypodermis (subcutaneous tissue; not part of skin) Nervous structures Sensory nerve fiber with free nerve

endings Lamellar corpuscle Hair follicle receptor (root hair plexus) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Cutaneous plexus Adipose tissue 5.2 Epidermis Cells of the Epidermis Epidermis consists mostly of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium Four cell types found in epidermis: 1. Keratinocytes

Produce fibrous keratin (protein that gives skin its protective properties) Major cells of epidermis Tightly connected by desmosomes Millions slough off every day 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Cells of the Epidermis (cont.) 2. Melanocytes Spider-shaped cells located in deepest epidermis Produce pigment melanin, which is packaged into melanosomes Melanosomes are transferred to keratinocytes, where they protect nucleus from UV damage

3. Dendritic (Langerhans) cells Star-shaped macrophages that patrol deep epidermis Are key activators of immune system 4. Tactile (Merkel) cells Sensory receptors that sense touch 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Layers of the Epidermis Epidermis is made up of four or five distinct layers Thick skin contains five layers (strata) and is found in high-abrasion areas (hands, feet)

Thin skin contains only four strata Five layers of skin 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Stratum basale Stratum spinosum Stratum granulosum Stratum lucidum (only in thick skin) Stratum corneum

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Layers of the Epidermis (cont.) 1. Stratum basale (basal layer) Deepest of all epidermal layers (base layer) Layer that is firmly attached to dermis Consists of a single row of stem cells that actively divide (mitotic), producing two daughter cells each time One daughter cell journeys from basal layer to surface, taking 2545 days to reach surface Cell dies as it moves toward surface Other daughter cell remains in stratum basale as stem cell Layer also known as stratum germinativum

because of active mitosis 1025% of layer also composed of melanocytes 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Layers of the Epidermis (cont.) 2. Stratum spinosum (prickly layer) Several cell layers thick Cells contain weblike system of intermediate prekeratin filaments attached to desmosomes Allows them to resist tension and pulling Keratinocytes in this layer appear spikey, so they are called prickle cells Scattered among keratinocytes are abundant melanosomes and dendritic cells

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Layers of the Epidermis (cont.) 3. Stratum granulosum (granular layer) Four to six cells thick, but cells are flattened, so layer is thin Cell appearance changes Cells flatten, nuclei and organelles disintegrate Keratinization begins Cells accumulate keratohyaline granules that help form keratin fibers in upper layers Cells also accumulate lamellar granules, a waterresistant glycolipid that slows water loss

Cells above this layer die Too far from dermal capillaries to survive 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Layers of the Epidermis (cont.) 4. Stratum lucidum (clear layer) Found only in thick skin Consists of thin, translucent band of two to three rows of clear, flat, dead keratinocytes Lies superficial to the stratum granulosum 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Layers of the Epidermis (cont.) 5. Stratum corneum (horny layer)

2030 rows of flat, anucleated, keratinized dead cells Accounts for three-quarters of epidermal thickness Though dead, cells still function to: Protect deeper cells from the environment Prevent water loss Protect from abrasion and penetration Act as a barrier against biological, chemical, and physical assaults

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Layers of the Epidermis (cont.) Cells change by going through apoptosis (controlled cell death) Dead cells slough off as dandruff and dander Humans can shed ~50,000 cells every minute 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.2 Epidermal cells and layers of the epidermis. Keratinocytes

Stratum corneum Most superficial layer; 2030 layers of dead cells, essentially flat membranous sacs filled with keratin. Glycolipids in extracellular space. Stratum granulosum Typically one to five layers of flattened cells, organelles deteriorating; cytoplasm full of lamellar granules (release lipids) and keratohyaline granules. Stratum spinosum Several layers of keratinocytes unified by desmosomes. Cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of

pre-keratin. Stratum basale Deepest epidermal layer; one row of actively mitotic stem cells; some newly formed cells become part of the more superficial layers. See occasional melanocytes and dendritic cells. Dermis Dermis Melanin granule Sensory

nerve ending Desmosomes Melanocyte 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Tactile (Merkel) cell Dendritic cell 5.3 Dermis Strong, flexible connective tissue

Cells include fibroblasts, macrophages, and occasionally mast cells and white blood cells Fibers in matrix bind body together Makes up the hide that is used to make leather Contains nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels Contains epidermal hair follicles, oil glands, and sweat glands Two layers Papillary Reticular 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.3 Light micrograph of the dermis.

Epidermis Papillary layer Dermis Reticular layer 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Papillary Layer Superficial layer of areolar connective tissue consisting of loose, interlacing collagen and elastic fibers and blood vessels

Loose fibers allow phagocytes to patrol for microorganisms Dermal papillae: superficial region of dermis that sends fingerlike projections up into epidermis Projections contains capillary loops, free nerve endings, and touch receptors (tactile corpuscles, also called Meissners corpuscles) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Papillary Layer (cont.) In thick skin, dermal papillae lie on top of dermal ridges, which give rise to epidermal ridges Collectively ridges are called friction ridges Enhance gripping ability

Contribute to sense of touch Sweat pores in ridges leave unique fingerprint pattern 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.4a Dermal modifications result in characteristic skin markings. Openings of sweat gland ducts 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Friction ridges

Friction ridges of fingertip (SEM 12) Reticular Layer Makes up ~80% of dermal thickness Consists of coarse, dense fibrous connective tissue Many elastic fibers provide stretch-recoil properties Collagen fibers provide strength and resiliency Bind water, keeping skin hydrated Cutaneous plexus: network of blood vessels between reticular layer and hypodermis

Extracellular matrix contains pockets of adipose cells 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Reticular Layer (cont.) Cleavage (tension) lines in reticular layer are caused by many collagen fibers running parallel to skin surface Externally invisible Important to surgeons because incisions parallel to cleavage lines heal more readily 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.4b Dermal modifications result in characteristic skin markings.

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Cleavage lines in the reticular dermis Reticular Layer (cont.) Flexure lines of reticular layer are dermal folds at or near joints Dermis is tightly secured to deeper structures Skins inability to slide easily for joint movement causes deep creases Visible on hands, wrists, fingers, soles, toes 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 5.4c Dermal modifications result in characteristic skin markings. Flexure lines on digit Flexure lines on the palm Flexure lines of the hand 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Clinical Homeostatic Imbalance 5.1

Extreme stretching of skin can cause dermal tears, leaving silvery white scars called striae Also known as stretch marks Acute, short-term traumas to skin can cause blisters, fluid-filled pockets that separate epidermal and dermal layers 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.5 Stretch marks (striae). 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 5.4 Skin Color

Three pigments contribute to skin color 1. Melanin Only pigment made in skin; made by melanocytes Packaged into melanosomes that are sent to keratinocytes to shield DNA from sunlight Sun exposure stimulates melanin production Two forms: reddish yellow to brownish black All humans have same number of keratinocytes, so color differences are due to amount and form of melanin Freckles and pigmented moles are local accumulations of melanin 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

5.4 Skin Color 2. Carotene Yellow to orange pigment Most obvious in palms and soles Accumulates in stratum corneum and hypodermis Can be converted to vitamin A for vision and epidermal health 3. Hemoglobin Pinkish hue of fair skin is due to lower levels of

melanin Skin of Caucasians is more transparent, so color of hemoglobin shows through 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Clinical Homeostatic Imbalance 5.2 Excessive sun exposure damages skin Elastic fibers clump, causing skin to become leathery Can depress immune system and cause alterations in DNA that may lead to skin cancer UV light destroys folic acid Necessary for DNA synthesis, so insufficient folic acid is especially dangerous for developing embryos

Photosensitivity is increased reaction to sun Some drugs (e.g., antibiotics, antihistamines) and perfumes cause photosensitivity, leading to skin rashes 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Clinical Homeostatic Imbalance 5.3 Alterations in skin color can indicate disease Cyanosis Blue skin color: low oxygenation of hemoglobin Erythema (redness) Fever, hypertension, inflammation, allergy

Pallor (blanching or pale color) Anemia, low blood pressure, fear, anger Jaundice (yellow cast) Liver disorders 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Clinical Homeostatic Imbalance 5.3 Alterations in skin color can indicate disease (cont.) Bronzing Inadequate steroid hormones (example: Addisons disease)

Bruises (black-and-blue marks) Clotted blood beneath skin 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 5.5 Hair Consists of dead keratinized cells None located on palms, soles, lips, nipples, and portions of external genitalia Functions: Warn of insects on skin Hair on head guards against physical trauma Protect from heat loss Shield skin from sunlight

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Structure of a Hair Hairs (also called pili): flexible strands of dead, keratinized cells Produced by hair follicles Contains hard keratin, not like soft keratin found in skin Hard keratin is tougher and more durable, and cells do not flake off Regions: Shaft: area that extends above scalp, where keratinization is complete Root: area within scalp, where keratinization is still

going on 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Structure of a Hair (cont.) Three parts of hair shaft: Medulla: central core of large cells and air spaces Cortex: several layers of flattened cells surrounding medulla Cuticle: outer layer consisting of overlapping layers of single cells 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Structure of a Hair (cont.)

Hair pigments are made by melanocytes in hair follicles Combinations of different melanins (yellow, rust, brown, black) create all the hair colors Red hair has additional pheomelanin pigment Gray/white hair results when melanin production decreases and air bubbles replace melanin in shaft 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.6ab Skin appendages: Structure of a hair and hair follicle. Follicle wall Peripheral connective

tissue (fibrous) sheath Glassy membrane Epithelial root sheath External root sheath Internal root sheath Hair Cuticle Cortex Medulla Diagram of a cross section of a hair within its follicle

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Photomicrograph of a cross section of a hair and hair follicle (100) Structure of a Hair Follicle Extends from epidermal surface to dermis Hair bulb: expanded area at deep end of follicle Hair follicle receptor (or root hair plexus): sensory nerve endings that wrap around bulb Hair is considered a sensory touch receptor Wall of follicle composed of: Peripheral connective tissue sheath

Derived from dermis Also called fibrous sheath Glassy membrane: thickened basal lamina Epithelial root sheath Derived from epidermis 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Structure of a Hair Follicle (cont.) Hair matrix: actively dividing area of bulb that produces hair cells As matrix makes new cells, it pushes older ones upward Arrector pili: small band of smooth muscle

attached to follicle Responsible for goose bumps Hair papilla Dermal tissue containing a knot of capillaries that supplies nutrients to growing hair 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.6cd Skin appendages: Structure of a hair and hair follicle. Follicle wall Peripheral connective tissue (fibrous)

sheath Glassy membrane Epithelial root sheath External root sheath Internal root sheath Hair root Cuticle Cortex Medulla Hair matrix Hair papilla Melanocyte Subcutaneous

adipose tissue Diagram of a longitudinal view of the expanded hair bulb of the follicle, which encloses the matrix 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Photomicrograph of longitudinal view of the hair bulb in the follicle (150) Types and Growth of Hair Vellus hair: pale, fine body hair of children and adult females Terminal hair: coarse, long hair Found on scalp and eyebrows At puberty

Appear in axillary and pubic regions of both sexes Also on face and neck of males Nutrition and hormones affect hair growth Follicles cycle between active and regressive phases Average 2.25 mm growth per week Lose 90 scalp hairs daily 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Clinical Homeostatic Imbalance 5.4 In women, ovaries and adrenal glands produce small amounts of androgens (male sex hormones), but tumors on these organs can cause abnormally large amounts of androgens

Can result in excessive hairiness, called hirsutism, as well as other signs of masculinization Treatment is surgical removal of tumors 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Hair Thinning and Baldness Alopecia: hair thinning in both sexes after age 40 True (frank) baldness Genetically determined and sex-influenced condition Male pattern baldness caused by follicular response to DHT (dihydrotestosterone)

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Clinical Homeostatic Imbalance 5.5 Hair thinning can be induced by several factors: Acutely high fever Surgery Severe emotional trauma Certain drugs (such as antidepressants, blood thinners, steroids, and chemotherapeutic drugs) Protein-deficient diets Alopecia areata: immune system attacks follicles Some hair loss is reversible, but others (such as from burns or radiation) are permanent 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

5.6 Nails Scale-like modifications of epidermis that contain hard keratin Act as a protective cover for distal, dorsal surface of fingers and toes Consist of free edge, nail plate, and root Nail bed is epidermis underneath keratinized nail plate Nail matrix: thickened portion of bed responsible for nail growth 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 5.6 Nails

Nail folds: skin folds that overlap border of nail Eponychium: nail fold that projects onto surface of nail body Also called cuticle Hyponychium: area under free edge of plate that accumulates dirt Nails normally appear pink because of underlying capillaries Lunule: thickened nail matrix, appears white Abnormal color or shape can be an indicator of disease 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 5.7 Skin appendages: Structure of a nail. Lateral nail fold Lunule Free edge Body of nail of nail Hyponychium 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Eponychium Root of nail

(cuticle) Nail Proximal matrix nail fold Nail bed Phalanx (bone of fingertip) 5.7 Sweat Glands Also called sudoriferous glands All skin surfaces except nipples and parts of external genitalia contain sweat glands About 3 million per person

Two main types Eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands Apocrine sweat glands Contain myoepithelial cells Contract upon nervous system stimulation to force sweat into ducts 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Eccrine (Merocrine) Sweat Glands

Most numerous type Abundant on palms, soles, and forehead Ducts connect to pores Function in thermoregulation Regulated by sympathetic nervous system Their secretion is sweat 99% water, salts, vitamin C, antibodies, dermcidin (microbe-killing peptide), metabolic wastes 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.8b Skin appendages: Cutaneous glands.

Sebaceous gland Sweat pore Eccrine gland Duct Dermal connective tissue Secretory cells Photomicrograph of

a sectioned eccrine gland (140) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Apocrine Sweat Glands Confined to axillary and anogenital areas Secrete viscous milky or yellowish sweat that contains fatty substances and proteins Bacteria break down sweat, leading to body odor Larger than eccrine sweat glands with ducts emptying into hair follicles Begin functioning at puberty Function unknown but may act as sexual scent gland

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Apocrine Sweat Glands (cont.) Modified apocrine glands Ceruminous glands: lining of external ear canal; secrete cerumen (earwax) Mammary glands: secrete milk 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Sebaceous (Oil) Glands Widely distributed, except for thick skin of palms and soles Most develop from hair follicles and secrete into

hair follicles Relatively inactive until puberty Stimulated by hormones, especially androgens Secrete sebum Oily holocrine secretion Bactericidal (bacteria-killing) properties Softens hair and skin 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.8a Skin appendages: Cutaneous glands. Dermal connective Sebaceous

tissue gland Sebaceous gland duct Hair in hair follicle Sweat pore Eccrine gland Secretory cells

Photomicrograph of a sectioned sebaceous gland (90) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Clinical Homeostatic Imbalance 5.6 Whiteheads are blocked sebaceous glands If secretion oxidizes, whitehead becomes a blackhead Acne is usually an infectious inflammation of the sebaceous glands, resulting in pimples (pustules) Overactive sebaceous glands in infants can lead to seborrhea, known as cradle cap

Begins as pink, raised lesions on scalp that turn yellow/brown and flake off 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.9 Cradle cap (seborrhea) in a newborn. 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 5.8 Functions of Skin Skin is first and foremost a barrier Its main functions include: Protection Body temperature regulation Cutaneous sensations Metabolic functions

Blood reservoir Excretion of wastes 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Protection Skin is exposed to microorganisms, abrasions, temperature extremes, and harmful chemicals Constitutes three barriers: Chemical barrier Physical barrier Biological barrier 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Protection (cont.) Chemical barrier Skin secretes many chemicals, such as: Sweat, which contains antimicrobial proteins Sebum and defensins, which kill bacteria Cells also secrete antimicrobial defensin Acid mantle: low pH of skin retards bacterial multiplication Melanin provides a chemical barrier against UV radiation damage 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Protection (cont.)

Physical barrier Flat, dead, keratinized cells of stratum corneum, surrounded by glycolipids, block most water and water-soluble substances Some chemicals have limited penetration of skin Lipid-soluble substances Plant oleoresins (e.g., poison ivy) Organic solvents (acetone, paint thinner)

Salts of heavy metals (lead, mercury) Some drugs (nitroglycerin) Drug agents (enhancers that help carry other drugs across skin) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Protection (cont.) Biological barriers Epidermis contains phagocytic cells Dendritic cells of epidermis engulf foreign antigens (invaders) and present to white blood cells, activating the immune response Dermis contains macrophages

Macrophages also activate immune system by presenting foreign antigens to white blood cells DNA can absorb harmful UV radiation, converting it to harmless heat 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Temperature Regulation Under normal, resting body temperature, sweat glands produce about 500 ml/day of unnoticeable sweat Called insensible perspiration If body temperature rises, dilation of dermal vessels

can increase sweat gland activity to produce 12 L (3 gallons) of noticeable sweat Called sensible perspiration; designed to cool body Cold external environment Dermal blood vessels constrict Skin temperature drops to slow passive heat loss 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Cutaneous Sensations Cutaneous sensory receptors are part of the nervous system Exteroreceptors respond to stimuli outside body, such as temperature and touch

Free nerve endings sense painful stimuli 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.1 Skin structure. Hair shaft Dermal papillae Epidermis Papillary layer Subpapillary plexus Sweat pore

Appendages of skin Eccrine sweat gland Arrector pili muscle Sebaceous (oil) gland Hair follicle Hair root Dermis Reticular layer Hypodermis (subcutaneous tissue; not part of skin) Nervous structures

Sensory nerve fiber with free nerve endings Lamellar corpuscle Hair follicle receptor (root hair plexus) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Cutaneous plexus Adipose tissue Metabolic Functions Skin can synthesize vitamin D needed for calcium absorption in intestine Chemicals from keratinocytes can disarm some

carcinogens Keratinocytes can activate some hormones Example: convert cortisone into hydrocortisone Skin makes collagenase, which aids in natural turnover of collagen to prevent wrinkles 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Blood Reservoir Skin can hold up to 5% of the bodys total blood volume Skin vessels can be constricted to shunt blood to other organs, such as an exercising muscle

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Excretion Skin can secrete limited amounts of nitrogenous wastes, such as ammonia, urea, and uric acid Sweating can cause salt and water loss 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 5.9 Skin Cancer and Burns Skin can develop over 1000 different conditions and ailments Many internal diseases reveal themselves on skin

Most common disorders are infections Less common, but more damaging, are: Skin cancer Burns 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Skin Cancer Most skin tumors are benign (not cancerous) and do not spread (metastasize) Risk factors Overexposure to UV radiation Frequent irritation of skin Some skin lotions contain enzymes that can

repair damaged DNA Three major types of skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Melanoma 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Skin Cancer (cont.) Basal cell carcinoma Least malignant and most common Stratum basale cells proliferate and slowly invade dermis and hypodermis Cured by surgical excision in 99% of cases 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 5.10a Photographs of skin cancers. Basal cell carcinoma 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Skin Cancer (cont.) Squamous cell carcinoma Second most common type; can metastasize Involves keratinocytes of stratum spinosum Usually is a scaly reddened papule on scalp, ears, lower lip, or hands Good prognosis if treated by radiation therapy or removed surgically

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.10b Photographs of skin cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Skin Cancer (cont.) Melanoma Cancer of melanocytes; is most dangerous type because it is highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy

Treated by wide surgical excision accompanied by immunotherapy Key to survival is early detection: ABCD rule A: asymmetry; the two sides of the pigmented area do not match B: border irregularity; exhibits indentations C: color; contains several colors (black, brown, tan, sometimes red or blue) D: diameter; larger than 6 mm (size of pencil eraser) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.10c Photographs of skin cancers. Melanoma

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Burns Tissue damage caused by heat, electricity, radiation, or certain chemicals Damage caused by denaturation of proteins, which destroys cells Immediate threat is dehydration and electrolyte imbalance Leads to renal shutdown and circulatory shock To evaluate burns, the Rule of Nines is used Body is broken into 11 sections, with each section representing 9% of body surface (except genitals, which account for 1%)

Used to estimate volume of fluid loss 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.11 Estimating the extent and severity of burns using the rule of nines. Totals 412% Anterior and posterior head and neck, 9% Anterior and posterior upper limbs, 18% 412% 412%

Anterior trunk, 18% 9% 9% Anterior and posterior trunk, 36% Perineum, 1% Anterior and posterior lower limbs, 36%

100% 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Burns (cont.) Burns can be classified by severity First-degree Epidermal damage only Localized redness, edema (swelling), and pain Second-degree Epidermal and upper dermal damage Blisters appear First- and second-degree burns are referred to as partial-thickness burns because only the epidermis and upper dermis are involved

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Burns (cont.) Burns can be classified by severity (cont.) Third-degree Entire thickness of skin involved (referred to as fullthickness burns) Skin color turns gray-white, cherry red, or blackened No edema is seen and area is not painful because nerve endings are destroyed Skin grafting usually necessary 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.12 Partial-thickness and full-thickness burns.

1st-degree burn 3rd-degree burn 2nd-degree burn Skin bearing partial-thickness burn (1st- and 2nd-degree burns) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

Skin bearing full-thickness burn (3rd-degree burn) Burns (cont.) Burns are considered critical if: >25% of body has second-degree burns >10% of body has third-degree burns Face, hands, or feet bear third-degree burns Treatment includes: Debridement (removal) of burned skin Antibiotics Temporary covering Skin grafts

2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects of the Integumentary System Fetal: by end of 4th month, skin of fetus is developed Lanugo coat: delicate hairs in 5th and 6th month Vernix caseosa: sebaceous gland secretion that protects skin of fetus while in watery amniotic fluid 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects of the Integumentary System

Infancy to adulthood: skin thickens and accumulates more subcutaneous fat; sweat and sebaceous gland activity increases, leading to acne Optimal appearance during 20s and 30s After age 30, effects of cumulative environmental assaults start to show Scaling and dermatitis become more common 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects of the Integumentary System Aging skin Epidermal replacement slows; skin becomes

thin, dry, and itchy (decreased sebaceous gland activity) Subcutaneous fat and elasticity decrease, leading to cold intolerance and wrinkles Increased risk of cancer due to decreased numbers of melanocytes and dendritic cells Hair thinning Ways to delay aging: UV protection, good nutrition, lots of fluids, good hygiene 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

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