4.2 PopulationEcology 2010edit - Ms. Pennington Pre-AP Bio

4.2 PopulationEcology 2010edit - Ms. Pennington Pre-AP Bio

organism population community ecosystem biosphere Population Ecology (Ch.5) Factors that affect Population Size Density Independant Abiotic factors Amount of sunlight & temperature precipitation / water soil / nutrients Density Dependant -Biotic factors other living organisms

prey (food) competitors predators, parasites, disease At risk populations Endangered species limitations to range / habitat, over hunting, fishing Loss of habitat (clear cutting, development, farming) Changes in environment, competition. Introduced species that take over! Devils hole pupfish Iiwi Hawaiian bird Catalina Island

mahogany tree Socorro isopod Iriomote cat New Guinea tree kangaroo Northern white rhinoceros marking territory = competition Population Spacing Dispersal patterns of a population Provides

Provides insight insight into into the the environmental environmental associations associations & & social social interactions of individuals individuals in population clumped random uniform

Population Size Changes to population size (4 factors) adding & removing individuals from a population 1)Birth (B) 2)Death (D) 3)Immigration (I) 4)Emigration (E) Births and immigration add individuals to a population. Births

Immigration PopuIation size Emigration Deaths Deaths and emigration remove individuals from a population. Age structure Relative number of individuals of each age What do these data imply about population growth in these countries? Survivorship curves What do these graphs

tell about survival & strategy of a species? Generalized strategies Survival per thousand 1000 Human (type I) Hydra (type II) 100 II. Constant mortality rate throughout life span

Oyster (type III) 10 1 0 25 I. High death rate in post-reproductive years 50 75

Percent of maximum life span 100 III. Very high early mortality but the few survivors then live long (stay reproductive) Reproductive strategies K-selected late reproduction few offspring invest a lot in raising offspring Primates (us) Big mammals K-selected

r-selected early reproduction many offspring little parental care insects many plants r-selected Exponential growth rate (J) curve Characteristic of populations without limiting factors (wide open resources) introduced to a new environment or rebounding from a catastrophe and they grow exponentially so graph looks like the letter J. Whooping crane coming back from near extinction African elephant protected from hunting

Introduced (Invasive) species often J curve Non-native species transplanted populations may grow exponentially in new area May out-compete native species lack of predators, parasites, competitors reduce diversity examples African honeybee gypsy moth gypsy moth zebra mussel

purple loosestrife kudzu The Snakehead A serious problem in the U.S. Great Snakehead Problems Snakeheads eat game fish and have no predators so they can overcrowd a body of water and harm native species. They are adapted to survive in water with little oxygen and can even crawl across land for short distances on their fins, taking in oxygen from a special bronchial adaptation. They will not attack people but may injure anyone stepping on them. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmU7etSYYqI Logistic rate of growth called an S curve

Can populations continue to grow exponentially? NO it will reach carrying capacity and level off. The line will typically stay around K but will fluctuate some. K= carrying capacity Human population growth adding adding 82 82 million/year million/year ~~ 200,000 200,000 per per day! day! 20056 billion Significant advances

in medicine through science and technology What factors have contributed to this exponential growth pattern? Is the human population reaching carrying capacity? Industrial Revolution Bubonic plague "Black Death" 1650500 million

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