4.2 PopulationEcology 2010edit - Ms. Pennington Pre-AP Bio
organism population community ecosystem biosphere Population Ecology (Ch.5) Factors that affect Population Size Density Independant Abiotic factors Amount of sunlight & temperature precipitation / water soil / nutrients Density Dependant -Biotic factors other living organisms
prey (food) competitors predators, parasites, disease At risk populations Endangered species limitations to range / habitat, over hunting, fishing Loss of habitat (clear cutting, development, farming) Changes in environment, competition. Introduced species that take over! Devils hole pupfish Iiwi Hawaiian bird Catalina Island
mahogany tree Socorro isopod Iriomote cat New Guinea tree kangaroo Northern white rhinoceros marking territory = competition Population Spacing Dispersal patterns of a population Provides
Provides insight insight into into the the environmental environmental associations associations & & social social interactions of individuals individuals in population clumped random uniform
Population Size Changes to population size (4 factors) adding & removing individuals from a population 1)Birth (B) 2)Death (D) 3)Immigration (I) 4)Emigration (E) Births and immigration add individuals to a population. Births
Immigration PopuIation size Emigration Deaths Deaths and emigration remove individuals from a population. Age structure Relative number of individuals of each age What do these data imply about population growth in these countries? Survivorship curves What do these graphs
tell about survival & strategy of a species? Generalized strategies Survival per thousand 1000 Human (type I) Hydra (type II) 100 II. Constant mortality rate throughout life span
Oyster (type III) 10 1 0 25 I. High death rate in post-reproductive years 50 75
Percent of maximum life span 100 III. Very high early mortality but the few survivors then live long (stay reproductive) Reproductive strategies K-selected late reproduction few offspring invest a lot in raising offspring Primates (us) Big mammals K-selected
r-selected early reproduction many offspring little parental care insects many plants r-selected Exponential growth rate (J) curve Characteristic of populations without limiting factors (wide open resources) introduced to a new environment or rebounding from a catastrophe and they grow exponentially so graph looks like the letter J. Whooping crane coming back from near extinction African elephant protected from hunting
Introduced (Invasive) species often J curve Non-native species transplanted populations may grow exponentially in new area May out-compete native species lack of predators, parasites, competitors reduce diversity examples African honeybee gypsy moth gypsy moth zebra mussel
purple loosestrife kudzu The Snakehead A serious problem in the U.S. Great Snakehead Problems Snakeheads eat game fish and have no predators so they can overcrowd a body of water and harm native species. They are adapted to survive in water with little oxygen and can even crawl across land for short distances on their fins, taking in oxygen from a special bronchial adaptation. They will not attack people but may injure anyone stepping on them. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmU7etSYYqI Logistic rate of growth called an S curve
Can populations continue to grow exponentially? NO it will reach carrying capacity and level off. The line will typically stay around K but will fluctuate some. K= carrying capacity Human population growth adding adding 82 82 million/year million/year ~~ 200,000 200,000 per per day! day! 20056 billion Significant advances
in medicine through science and technology What factors have contributed to this exponential growth pattern? Is the human population reaching carrying capacity? Industrial Revolution Bubonic plague "Black Death" 1650500 million
Self Discovery Luke 18:9 - 14 (NKJV) "Also He spoke this parable to some who trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others: 'Two men went up to the temple to pray, one a Pharisee and the other...
demographic critical point faced (Malthusian Crisis) 4) Long term result. population declines, return to balance with natural carrying capacity . eventually climate improved and population growth resumed .
This chartbook is the first within a series of chartbooks that reflects selected results from the 12th NSOAAP survey performed in 2017. The following pages detail some background on the NSOAAP survey, and show where reports and data are found...
unfused (incomplete) tetanus (b) If another stimulus is applied before the muscle. relaxes completely, then more tension results. This is temporal (or wave) summation and results. in unfused (or incomplete) tetanus. Treppe. Response to Change in Stimulus Frequency.
Nature's Nightmare: A study of the chemistry of DDT and its effects on the environment. Scott Zeglin Synthesis of DDT DDT Biomagnification The main reason DDT accumulates as it moves up the food chain is because it is hardly metabolized...
Shared mobility to increase tire replacement demand for fleets and impact all facets of branding, marketing and operations. Global tire industry analysis . 2. Source: Technavio analysis, EY analysis. Implications for the tire industry. An increase in vehicle utilization due...
I will show you some purchasing sites that you may find helpful in a few minutes. You will want to keep a record of the transaction because the item is paid within 2-3 days and you will need to confirm...
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