4 - Midland Independent School District / Overview

4 - Midland Independent School District / Overview

Chapter4 Basic Food Chemistry: The Nature of Matter Images shutterstock.com Objectives Describe the basic structure of atoms. Identify symbols on the periodic table commonly used in food science. Define ionic and covalent bonding. Explain the difference between pure

substances and mixtures. continued Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Objectives Compare physical and chemical reactions in laboratory experiments. Balance chemical equations to illustrate simple chemical reactions. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

The Basic Nature of Matter Chemistry is the study of the makeup, structure, and properties of substances and the changes that occur to them It is the study of matter An atom is the smallest unit of any elemental substance that maintains the characteristics of that substance continued Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. The Basic Nature of Matter Subatomic particles make up an atom the nucleus, or central core of an atom, contains positively charged protons neutrons, which have no charge and negatively charged electrons spin around the nucleus in an

orbital Goodheart-Willcox Publisher Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. continued Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. The Basic Nature of Matter An element is a substance that contains only one kind of atom The number of protons determines the element of an atom

Elements are organized by structure and chemical properties in the periodic table A system of symbols is used to identify elements Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. The Periodic Table Chart showing how elements relate and react to one another Each cell gives the symbol of the chemical element and includes the atomic numbernumber of protons in

the nucleus in each atom of that element atomic masssum of the masses of the protons and neutrons in an atom continued Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. The Periodic Table The mass of a proton or neutron is defined as equal to one atomic mass unit (AMU) The mass of an electron is so small it is insignificant Organization of the cells indicates

how elements interact chemically Elements are grouped as either metals (left side) or nonmetals (right continued side) Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. The Periodic Table Goodheart-Willcox Publisher Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Compounds Compounds are substances in which 2 or more elements chemically combine The basic unit of any compound is a molecule Sodium (Na) combines with chloride (Cl) to form sodium chloride (NaCl) or table salt Aaron Amat/Shutterstock.com Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Chemical Formulas A chemical formula is a combination of symbols of elements making up a compound that represents one molecule or unit of a compound has the symbol and subscript numbers of atoms for each element in the compound continued Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Chemical Formulas Knowing how to read a chemical formula can help identify the elements in the substance H2O is composed of 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom Chemical formulas can indicate how atoms are arranged in a molecule continued Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Chemical Formulas Structural formulas for carbon based compounds are written to show how atoms connect to the carbons Chemical formula for acetic acid is C2H4O2 and structural formula is CH3COOH Goodheart-Willcox Publisher Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Chemical Bonding The force that holds 2 atoms together is a chemical bond Electrons form the bond Each orbital contains 2 electrons The space around the nucleus with one or more orbitals is called a shell Atoms have up to 7 shells The number of shells determines an elements position (its row) on the periodic table continued Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Chemical Bonding Atoms are most stable when the outer shell is full of electrons Atoms that are not stable will share or transfer electrons from another atom Each column, or group, in the periodic table has the same number of electrons in the outermost shell Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Ionic Bonds An ionic bond occurs when electrons are transferred from one atom to another This creates a negative charge in one atom and a positive charge in the other An atom with a positive or negative electrical charge is called an ion A cation has a positive charge whereas an anion has a negative charge continued Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Ionic Bonds Identical charges repel each other, but opposite charges attract Substances with ionic bonds have a crystalline structure dissolve in water are metals and nonmetals Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Covalent Bonds Covalent bonds form when atoms

share one or more pairs of electrons Oxygen will share 2 electrons in its outer shell with 2 hydrogen atoms to form water Goodheart-Willcox Publisher continued Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Covalent Bonds The Lewis Structure is a shorthand option of diagramming a valence electron These are electrons in partially full shells that are likely to be shared or transferred They are represented by a dot next to the for the symbol A shell can holdelement a maximum of 8 electrons Goodheart-Willcox Publisher

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. continued Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Covalent Bonds A double bond forms when 2 atoms share 2 pair of electrons The number of valence electrons around the atoms equals the number of valence electrons in the molecule Goodheart-Willcox Publisher

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. The Classification of Matter A pure substance is matter in which all the basic units are the same grouped as elements or compounds Compounds are categorized into organic compounds or inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain chains or

rings of carbon Inorganic compounds contain no carbon or only single carbon atoms continued Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. The Classification of Matter Mixtures are substances that are put together, but not chemically combined homogeneous mixtures have a uniform distribution of particles

heterogeneous mixtures have a nonuniform distribution of particles most homogenous mixtures are a solution in which a solute is dissolved by a solvent Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Physical and Chemical Changes A physical change involves changing shape, size, temperature and/or the physical state Phase change is a physical change in

the visible structure without changing the molecular structure Any phase change is an example of a reversible physical change continued Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Physical and Chemical Changes A chemical change occurs whenever new substances with different chemical and physical properties are formed

This produces a change in color, odor, or flavor, or releases a gas Physical and chemical changes may or may not be reversible Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Chemical Equations Chemical formulas are used to represent the compounds involved in a chemical change Chemical formulas on the left side of the

equation are called reactants Chemical formulas on the right side of the equation are called products Goodheart-Willcox Publisher continued Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Chemical Equations The law of conservation of matter states that matter can be changed, but not created or destroyed

This is shown in chemical equations Equations must balance by having the same number of each type of atom on both sides of the equation Goodheart-Willcox Publisher Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Recap Atoms are composed of a nucleus containing protons and

neutrons electrons moving about outside the nucleus The periodic table is a chart that shows how elements relate and react to one another Atoms form ionic and covalent bonds to create molecules andcontinued Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Recap Pure substances have the same

basic units, whereas mixtures are substances put together, but not chemically combined Changes to food compounds can be described as both physical and chemical Chemical equations are used to describe chemical changes Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

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