1818 ACC Chemistry

1818 ACC Chemistry

Chemistry Jan 9, 2018 P3 Challenge Objective Determine the Ionic Lewis structure for the compound that forms between Lithium and Sulfur. Intermolecular forces (IMF) Assignment: Intermolecular Forces Worksheet Agenda Bonding HMK reivew

Chemical formulas Inter vs Intra molecular Types of IMF Evidence of IMF Compound formation metals and nonmetals Ionic compounds form between metal and nonmetal elements by transferring electrons Cation (metal ion) and anion (nonmetal ion) Both cation and anions achieve completed octets

Two metal elements do not form compounds Two nonmetal elements can form molecular compounds by sharing electrons Both nonmetals get surrounded by 8 electrons Meaning of Chemical Formulas Chemical Formula tells number and types of elements using subscripts and parentheses as needed Ionic Formula unit; a representative sample of elements in lattice NaCl is a 1:1 ratio of sodium atoms to chlorine atoms in a matrix

Covalent Molecular formula; number and type of atoms in one molecule CO represents diatomic molecules, randomly oriented Intermolecular forces vs Intramolecular bonds There are many types of intermolecular forces that may occur between the particles represented by formulas. Ionic and covalent bonds are intramolecular and occur within the particles represented by formulas. For network/lattice solids, there is no distinction between interand intra-. We will discuss IMF in decreasing strength starting with those that can be considered both inter- and intra-molecular forces.

In general, the stronger the intermolecular force (IMF) the higher the melting and boiling points. In general, solids have the strongest IMF, gases have the weakest Types of Inter/Intra IMF Type of force Relative strength Present in Example Covalent network bonding Only a few select C

substances Strongest Ionic bonding Very strong Any ionic NaCl substances Metallic bonding Variable strength, some very strong Metals and Fe alloys Types of Pure IMF Type of force

Relative strength Present in Example Strong Molecules having H HF bonded to F, O, or N Dipole Dipole force Moderate Only polar CO molecules

Dispersion force Weak, but increases with molar mass All atoms H2 and molecules Hydrogen Bond Covalent Bonds Covalent Bonds are most often found intramolecular in molecular solids. The only time they are found as intermolecular is with a very few covalent network solids, like carbon C (diamond) or silicon dioxide SiO2 (glass/quartz)

Intramolecular covalent bonds are quite strong, but generally not as strong as ionic bonds. Intermolecular covalent network bonds are the strongest of all. Ionic Bonds The next strongest IMF occur for ionic solids. Intermolecular forces and intramolecular forces are identical for these compounds. The IMF is an electrostatic coulomb force that is present between any two oppositely charged species. a) proportional to both charges. (higher charges, higher

IMF) b) inversely proportional to the square of the distance between charges (bigger atoms, lower IMF) Metal bond Variable strength from strong to very strong. Both interand intra-. In general, a metal bond is formed between atoms of a metallic element. If more than one type of element is present, it is called an alloy. The bond can be described as fixed positive nuclei with a surrounding soup of electrons. The valence electrons of all nuclei contribute to the soup, but are not delegated to any region or specific nucleus. These delocalized electrons explain why metals conduct

electricity. Hydrogen Bonds Hydrogen Bonds are not bonds but are considered the strongest of the purely intermolecular forces. H-bonds are found intramolecular only within very large biological molecules (e.g. protein folding, DNA helix). They are represented on skeletal structures as a half solid, half dotted line. They are always formed as a hydrogen bridge between two electronegative atoms (N, O, F). The hydrogen must be covalently bonded to one of the two electronegative atoms. X

H X Hydrogen Bonds Occur in polar molecules that contain a Hydrogen bonded to fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen. Ex: HF, H2O, NH3, alcohols: R-OH, amines: R-NH2 hydrogen chain Water forms the strongest Hydrogen bonds because each oxygen atom can form two hydrogen bonds. R = any carbon- Dipole-dipole Polar bonds create partial charges within their molecules.

The partial charges can then attract one another electrostatically. These intermolecular forces are called dipole-dipole interactions. Dispersion/London/ Induced-dipole forces If no other type of interaction is present, there is still an intermolecular force, though extremely weak. Only force present in atomic solids. Multiple names for the same phenomenon Dispersion forces, London forces (named for Fritz London, not the city), Induced dipole induced dipole

When two neutral atoms approach one another, the region inbetween is avoided by electrons. This creates a slight induced dipole due to the presence of another nucleus. Strength of the Dispersion Force Ex: Noble gases. Strength of the dispersion force gets larger with larger molecules. Strength of the dispersion force gets larger with the longer molecule shapes. Evidence of IMF

In general, solids have the strongest IMF, gases have the weakest The stronger the IMF the higher the melting point and the higher the boiling point. as a gas, the lower the vapor pressure (partial pressure of vapor in equilibrium with liquid or solid in a closed container at a fixed temperature). as a liquid, the higher the viscosity and the higher the surface tension Exit Slip - Homework

Exit Slip: Which of these molecules would have the highest boiling point? Justify your choice. HO-OH, hydrogen peroxide CH3OH, methanol CH3SH, methane thiol Whats Due? (Pending assignments to complete.) Intermolecular forces Worksheet Whats Next? (How to prepare for the next day) Read Holt p385-392

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