Informal document GRSP-61-24 (61st GRSP, 8-12 May 2017, Submitted by the expert from Republic of Korea agenda items 14 and 26(a)) Introduction plan for implementing safety requirements of micro mobility 8 12 May 2017 Background Small vehicle / Large vehicle Demand for micro mobility increased due to changes in the social Eco-friendly vehicle environment Light and small vehicles accounted for 7.57%, and large vehicles accounted for 6.76% in 2014. Deepening polarization of preferred cars for small and large vehicles. Strengthen CO2 emission requirements. Continuing government policies such as tax reduction on eco- Goals of CO2 emission reduction for each manufacturer friendly vehicles. Role as City Car City car emerged as a means of short-distance transportation and complementary means of public transportation Car sharing service was increased due to Advanced vehicle GM plans to develop a micro mobility with autonomous driving function Efforts of Europe, Japan, etc. to strengthen safety of micro -2- Research and safety requirement trend in other countries Europe Micro mobility which is car-like was classified L7 category. Vehicle regulations of L7 were strengthened to Regulation (EU) No. 168/2013 from Directive 2002/24/EC in 2013. In EU Regulation 168/2013, safety
requirements on L7 category were added and strengthened. Definition of L7 category Category L7 Heavy Quadricycle Definition 4 wheels Mass 450kg(transport of passengers), 600kg(transport of goods) Seating positions 2 Vmax 90km/h Pmax 15kW L7 Regulations of L7 category Directive 2002/24/EC EU Regulation 168/2013 For example, vehicle occupant protection requirement was newly established and rearward visibility requirement was improved. 47 items for type approval. In this directive, 25 items were in Jan, 2013, effective from In Dec. 2016, the WP29 addressed the need to improve the safety regulations of the L7 category. mandatory. Jan, 2017. This regulation was amended L6(Light quadricycle) category is 36 items are mandatory. the same as L2 category
Safety requirements were requirements. added and strengthened. L7(Quadricycle) category is the same as L5 requirements. -3- Research and safety requirement trend in other countries Japan Micro mobility was called as Ultra small mobility. In several local governments, pilot projects are under progress. Through the pilot projects, the usability and safety of ultra small mobility will be evaluated . Kei car Ultra small mobility Max. Power 15kW Ultra Small Mobility Included the Kei car sub-category. Provisions to gradually meet the regulations of category M1. Carrying out the pilot projects to evaluate the usability and safety. Apply the 40km/h frontal impact requirement from 1994. No safety provisions for Ultra small mobility. Apply the 50km/h frontal impact and side impact requirements from 1998. Kei-car accounted for 32% of the entire auto market in 2012, therefore the number of Kei car traffic accidents increased. Need to strengthen the Kei-car safety requirements.
Ultra small mobility definition Length, width, height < Kei car Seating positions 2 Max. Power 8kW Max. Velocity 90km/h No roads dedicated exclusively for Ultra small mobility Compulsory system: Pedestrian alert system, Seat belt, Rear view mirror, Steering wheel Toyota iQ -4- Research outline Test Vehicle Selecting test vehicle Selection of test vehicle that are available in Korea Researching regulations Regulation Review of overseas s regulations that are applicable in Korea Test Occupant protection, Frontal impact, etc. General safety test Protective structure, Load platform, etc. Active safety test Braking, Lamps, Steerability , etc. Testing as following regulations Tested according to the reviewed regulations Implementing Implementing regulations Plan Passive safety
test Seat, Safety-belt, Establish micro mobility regulations in Korea Performance test Battery, EMC, Fuel consumption, etc. Safety regulations Safety regulations by sectors of general safety, passive safety, active safety and performance. -5- Selection of test vehicle Investigation of development and sales status Development plan of domestic and foreign manufacturers 5 OEMs : No plan except for Renault-Samsung(Twizy). 6 medium-sized companies : 2 manufacturers undergoing development, 4 manufactures considering development plan. Foreign manufacturers(from KAIDA) : No sales plan in Korea. Foreign manufacturers development and sales plan (from Literature search) : 15 vehicles. Selection of test vehicle Renault Twizy. Only Twizy is available in Korea. Domestic brand vehicle will not be available within our research period. Renault, Twizy Regulations Review of EU regulations that are applicable in Korea Directive 2002/24/EC 47 items for type approval. In this Directive, 25 items were mandatory. L6(Light quadricycle) category is the same as L2 category requirements. L7(Quadricycle) category is the same as L5 requirements. EU Reg. 168/2013 This regulation was amended in Jan, 2013, effective from Jan, 2017. 36 items are mandatory. Safety requirements were
added and strengthened. Test item for establishing micro mobility safety regulation in Applying M1 category regulations Korea based on EU Reg. 168/2013 Sector Number of item Added item for strengthening safety General Safety 6 items Mass and dimension, Protective structure, Fuel storage, Load platform, Devices to prevent unauthorized use, Coupling device - Active Safety 2 items Braking, Steerability Speedometer 4 items Rollover, Safety belt, Occupant Protection, Seats Frontal Impact, Pedestrian, Steering wheel impact, Door lock, Electrical safety 9 items Audible warning device, Glazing, Lamp, Rearward visibility, Tire, EMC, Fuel consumption, Engine power, Wipers REESS safety, QRTV Passive Safety Performance Total 21 items 8 items Application of EU Regulation 168/2013 -7- Tests Tested according to
the reviewed EU regulation 168/2013 Sector General Safety Active Safety Passive Safety Test items 6 items Mass and dimension, Protective structure, Fuel storage, Load platform, Devices to prevent unauthorized use, Coupling device 3 items Braking, Steerability, Speedometer 9 items Rollover, Safety belt, Occupant Protection, Seats, Frontal impact, Pedestrian, Steering wheel impact, Door lock, Electrical safety Test results and remarks Mass and dimension - In case of the dimension, considering the application of light passenger vehicle regulation in KMVSS. - For mass, gross vehicle weight 550kg including battery. Other items: Be able to apply of passenger vehicle(M1) regulations. Braking - Applying a form derived from two-wheeled motor vehicle braking system. - Need to apply of secondary braking system like a M1 category braking system. - Need to develop exclusively Micro mobility ABS. Steerability: Equivalent to M1 category regulations. Speedometer: Be able to apply passenger vehicle regulations. Rollover: Apply roof crush requirement of KMVSS. Safety belt: Need to strengthen the applying forces. Occupant protection - Similar to the requirement for checking radius of curvature. - For other vehicles, no requirement of curvature radius in KMVSS. Steering wheel impact: Considering this requirement in case of not applying frontal impact regulations. Pedestrian - Expecting the high frequency of exposure to pedestrian. -8 Door lock, Frontal impact and Electrical safety are not assessed Tests Tested according to the reviewed EU regulation 168/2013
Sector Performance Test items Test results and remarks 9 items Audible warning device, Glazing, Lamp, Rearward visibility, Tire, EMC, Fuel consumption, Engine power, Wipers, REESS safety, QRTV Lamp - Mandatory: Head lamps, Direction indicators, Position lamps, Stop lamps, Reversing lamps, Rear registrations plate lamps. Fuel consumption - Need a additional research for the test cycle. - FTP Mode(Passenger vehicle) or WMTC mode(Two-wheeled motor cycle) Wiper - Need the mandatory installation requirements of wiper system when compulsory side door and window pane installation requirements are applied. REESS safety - the tests carried out according to UN R.136. QRTV: Be able to apply passenger vehicle(M1) regulations. -9- Examples of performed test Passive safety tests Active safety tests Occupant Protection Pedestrian Rollover Head form Impact Head form impact Before test Leg form Impact Door lock After test Seat belt Belt anchorage Braking
Steerability Test equipment Test equipment Test result Test result Speedometer Performance tests Fuel consumption Lamp Rearview visibility Wiper Audible warning REESS EMC - 10 - Issues related to crash worthiness Seat and Safety belt anchorage requirement Applied regulations Based on EU R.168/2013 and KMVSS 97 and 103. The loaded force on the safety belt anchorage is stronger(about twice times) in KMVSS than EU Regulation. Tractive force in EU R: 675 daN 675 daN(EU Tractive force inR.) KMVSS: 1,078 daN Performed test Test results First test results subject to application of the EU R. are met the requirement. In second test according to KMVSS, safety belt
anchorages withstood. Issue 1. Strengthened the loaded force. In full frontal crash test result, the loaded force value on safety belt was about 800~900 daN. We need to strengthen the applied load on the safety belt anchorage. First Row Second Row 1,078 daN(KMVSS) . According to test results, Implementing regulations there is problem that no Considering the the test vehicle implementation of meets the strengthened strengthened regulations in requirements from now. Korea. - 11 - Issues related to crash worthiness Door Lock system requirement Applied regulations Based on EU R.168/2013 and KMVSS 104(equivalent to GTR 1). For evaluating the safety of door lock systems the test procedures of KMVSS is different from those of EU R. Test procedures of EU R. Static load test in EU R. push force of 200 daN, delivered by a flat-ended Test procedures of KMVSS
ram. Load test and Inertial test in Performed test Test results First test results met the requirements of EU R.. In second test according to KMVSS, the door lock systems withstood the load and inertial test. Issue 1. Strengthened the regulation. Door lock systems are very important in vehicle accidents because the door locks will prevent passengers from being ejected in the car accident. According to test results, there is no problem that the test vehicle meets the strengthened requirements from now. Implementing regulations Inertial test in vertical direction Considering the implementation of strengthened regulations in Korea. - 12 - Issues related to crash worthiness Pedestrian safety Applied regulations Based on KMVSS 102-2 (equivalent to GTR No.9) Pedestrian Protection Head Test Condition - Impactor (Impact angle) : Adult Headform(65), : Child Headform(50) - Impact Speed: 35 km/h - Injury Criteria: HIC 1000/1700 - Location: Worst / Typical area Leg Test Condition - Impactor: Flex-PLI
- Impact Speed: 40 km/h - Injury Criteria 1. ACL/PCL: 13 mm 2. MCL: 22 mm 3. T Bending Moment: 340 Nm - Location: CTR, Corner Performed test Test results Head Test Result No Location HIC A 1 WAD1900(CTR) 591.60 2 WAD1670(CTR) 340.98 3 A-plr RH 1712.78 X 4 Hood Corner 1990.99 X 5 WAD 1000(CTR) 1307.07
6 Wiper 1365.93 7 A-plr LH 2007.53 X Injury Result A Tibia Moment 284.05 Nm MCL/ACL/PCL 6.95/4.19/3. 67 Tibia 378.15 N/m Leg Test Result Locatio n Corner Issue 1 : Head form Test : Not adequate Test Area , or Extremely Narrow Test Area - Due to the short front - Not effective assessment (by the current regulation) Issue 2 : identification of Bumper / Hood : Hard to distinguish
bumper/hood - Due to the distinctive design (exposed tire, small front cover) - Not effective test area (if exemption zone is considered) Implementing regulations Need to consider the new regulations of micro vehicles for pedestrian protection, if necessary. - 13 - Issues related to crash worthiness Crash safety Applied regulations Based on KMVSS 102, UN R.94 and UN R.95 (KMVSS 102 similar to UN R.137) KMVSS 102(Full frontal) - Test speed: 48 km/h - Rigid barrier impact test - Dummy: Hybrid III 50%ile - Injury measurement: Head, Neck, Chest, Leg UN R.94(Offset) - Test speed: 56 km/h - 40% Offset - Honeycomb block impact test - Dummy: Hybrid III 50%ile - Injury measurement: Head, Neck, Chest, Leg UN R.95(Side) - Test speed: 50 km/h - Movable barrier impact test - Dummy: EuroSID II - Injury measurement: Performed test and results 0.37 1.56 48.2 Measurement Offset 893 76.6 0.67 1.49 23.7 Side 2452 -
6 - - 2.89 Femur Compression force 9.07 L: 3.12 / R: 4.83 L: 3.25 / R: 3.14 - Tibia Compression force 8.0 L: 4.5 / R: 6.4 L: 2.05 / R: 2.66 - Sector Head Neck Chest T12 Injury Requirement HIC36 Acceleration Shear force Tension force Moment 1000 80 3.1 3.3 57 Deflection
Full frontal 860 - Issues related to crash worthiness Full frontal impact 0ms 20ms 40ms 60ms 100ms 150ms 0ms 56ms 86ms 150ms 200ms Offset impact Side impact 80ms: Head contact to the roof in vehicle 0ms 50ms 100ms Comparing KATRI crash test results with 2014 EuroNCAP test results Frontal impact test results Head and neck injuries of 2014 EuroNCAP are similar to 2017 KATRI test. In the case of chest injuries, the result of chest deflection in KATRI test improved significantly compared with those in 2014 EuroNCAP. Femur force value improved. 57% improvement in chest deflection 64% improvement in right femur force
Side impact test results In 2017 research, dummy head contacted the roof of vehicle and HIC value exceeded 1000. Lower chest deflections improved significantly in 2017 KATRI research. But, chest acceleration results was worse. T1 and T12 injuries of spine in 2014 EuroNCAP were similar to those in 2017 KATRI research. 98% improvement in in lower chest deflection Remarks and issues The comparison of crash tests showed that some areas of the test vehicle in 2017 KATRI research improved over 2014 EuroNCAP. Based on KATRI test results Korea is considering the strengthening of crashworthiness requirements. 71% deterioration in lower chest Accel. Y - 16 - Implementing regulations in Korea Phase-in application of micro mobility regulations Application Phase 1 43 items amendment in KMVSS General safety: 20 items including mass and dimension, control and tell-tale signs, fuel storage, etc, Active safety: 3 items including braking, steerability, speedometer. Passive safety: 4 items including safety-belt, Door lock, etc. Performance: 16 items including tire, glasses, fuel consumption, lamps, etc. Phase 2 4 items Frontal impact Side impact Pedestrian safety Braking(ABS) - 17 - Thank you for your attention.
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