投影片 1 - nkfust.edu.tw

投影片 1 - nkfust.edu.tw

Reference Sense Mental images Various lexical relations Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, pp. 154-156. Synonyms Antonyms Homophones / Homonyms Hyponyms Heteronyms Polysemous words Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, pp. 156-159.

Gradable Pairs more A means less B big/small hot/cold Complementary Pairs A = not B; B = not A alive/dead awake/asleep (Relative scale: small elephant/big mouse) Relational Pairs If X = Ys A, then Y = Xs B teacher/student give/receive lead read

dove bow rendezvous record articulate person, woman, doctor, boy, engineer, baby +human doe, lady, sister, mare, her +female girl, actress, woman, aunt, wife, widow +human, +female child, baby, puppy, kitten +animate, +young

+ + + + + +

+ + + + + + +

+ George Yule (The Study of Language: An Introduction) 1999, p. 138. Intended Utterance Actual Utterance (Error) bridge of the nose bridge of the neck when my gums bled when my tongues bled he came too late he came too early Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 160.

Mary was young Mary was early lady with the dachshund lady with the Volkswagen a horse of another color a horse of another race he has to pay her alimony he has to pay her rent Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 160. Agent Theme (or Patient) Location Goal Source Instrument

Experiencer (Causative) (Possessor) Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 2011. An Introduction to Language, 9th edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, p. 165. (SOME MARKERSnot all take markers) Agent Theme Location Goal Source Instrument Experiencer (Causative) (Possessor)

(SOME MARKERSnot all take markers) Agent Theme Location Goal Source Instrument Experiencer (Causative) (Possessor)

etc [Passive only]Passive only]

Semantic Ambiguity a. bank b. kind: noun vs. adjective c. sole d. drill; boring e. deed f. ruler g. can: noun vs. modal h. shop: noun vs. verb i. a woman: same woman OR different women j. make your own bed: idiom or not k. job vs. idiom l. marry; a Norwegian woman (same as i) Semantic Features A. a & b +male, +animate

a +human b human B. a & b NOUNS ? a +count (countable) b count (non-count; mass nouns) C. a & b NOUNS ? a +concrete b concrete (abstract) Semantic Features D. a & b +plant a trees b flowers E. a & b ? a written things/documents b writing instruments F. a & b motion VERBS

a individual effort / without a vehicle b done with a vehicle Semantic Features G. a & b speaking a no manner specified b particular manner specified H. a & b ANTONYMS a complementary b gradable I. a & b ADJECTIVES a non-implicational (Adj N may not be an N) b implicational (Adj N is an N) Antonyms good expensive

parent beautiful false lessor pass bad cheap offspring ugly true lessee fail g g r

g c r c Antonyms hot legal larger poor fast asleep husband rude cold illegal

smaller rich slow awake wife polite g c r g g c r g Hints

a. c. e. g. i. bare praise sight plain mane b. d. f. h. j.

lead byte pairs karat frees

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