Lesson 17.1 Energy: An OverviewDo Now page 105List 3 fossil fuelsand what they areused forThe United States hasonly 4.5% of theworld’s population butuses 21.1% of theworld’s energy.

Lesson 17.1 Energy: An OverviewEnergy Sources and Uses Energy Sources Renewable: Nearly always available orreplaceable in a relatively short time;includes sunlight, wind, flowing water, heatfrom Earth Nonrenewable: Cannot be replaced in areasonable time; includes fossil fuels andnuclear energy Energy Use Four uses of energy: Industrial,transportation, residential, commercial Developed nations tend to use more energythan developing nations.Wind power is a renewableenergy source.

Lesson 17.2 Fossil FuelsOne quarter of global coal reservesare found in the United States.

Lesson 17.2 Fossil FuelsFossil Fuels Include coal, oil, and natural gas Formed from the remains of organisms over millions of years Different conditions produce different fossil fuelsA front loaderpiles coal at a steamstation in Dunkirk,New York.

Lesson 17.2 Fossil FuelsCoal Formed from plant remains subjected to high heat andpressures over millions of years Provides 1/4 ofthe world’s energy Compared to otherfossil fuels, coal ischeap, needs littleprocessing, and iseasy to transport.Did You Know? Coal is themost abundant fossil fuel onEarth.How Coal Forms

Lesson 17.2 Fossil FuelsCoal MiningStrip mining: Overlyingrock and soil areremoved to access coal(safer for miners).Subsurface mining: Undergroundshafts are dug to access coal underEarth’s surface.

Lesson 17.2 Fossil FuelsOil Dark, liquid fossil fuel made up mostly of hydrocarbons Formed from the remains of ancient marine organismsand found in underground deposits Used in fuel forcars, trucks,planes, ships Used in chemicalcompounds(petrochemicals) Also know aspetroleum

Lesson 17.2 Fossil FuelsDrilling and Refining Oil After crude oilis extractedfrom theground, it isseparated intodifferent fuelsin a refinery. Primary extraction:Oil flows out of the well,because it is alreadyunder pressure. Secondary extraction:Increased pressure orinjections needed toremove oil

Lesson 17.2 Fossil FuelsNatural Gas Primarily methane gas with small amounts of other gasesmixed in Often found above oil or coaldeposits Much less polluting thancoal or oil and releasesmore energy whencombusted Used for heating,appliances (stoves, dryers),and making electricity

Lesson 17.2 Fossil FuelsFossil Fuel Supply Consumption is still rising, but new fossil fuels do not formon a human timescale. New oil sources—oil sands, oil shale, methane hydrates—are expensive,energy-intensive,and can behazardous to obtain. Coal sources are stillrelatively abundant,but not infinite.Did You Know? Some studiessuggest we have extractednearly half Earth’s oil, and thatU.S. coal supplies may lastjust 130 years.

VideosFossil Fuels 1011. What does the term “fossil fuels” refer to?2. Why are fossil fuels highly sought after?3. Why are fossil fuels considered non-renewable?Fossil Fuels - the rate we use them1. How much coal does the world burn every day?2. How much oil does the world burn every day?3. How fast does the world consume natural gas everyday?

Day 2

Lesson 17.3 Consequences of Fossil Fuel UseThe United States imports twothirds of its crude oil.

Lesson 17.3 Consequences of Fossil Fuel UsePollution, Climate Change, andPublic Health Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide, whichcontributes to global climate change. When coal and oil burn, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxidesare released, which contribute to smog and acid deposition. Oil spills, equipment ruptures, and oil in runoff pollutewaterways, oceans, and coastal areas. Coal-fired power plants releasemercury, which harms humanhealth. Crude oil contains traceamounts of lead and arsenic.Did You Know? Coal-burning power plantscause 40% of mercury emissions due tohuman activity in the United States.

Lesson 17.3 Consequences of Fossil Fuel UseGulf of Mexico Oil Well Explosions 1979: Ixtoc I exploratory oil well 50 m below surface Released 126 million gal oil; containmentefforts took 9 months What didn’t work: cap, siphoning,controlled burn, “top kill” What did work: relief wells 2010: Deepwater Horizon oil well 1500 m below surface Largest U.S. offshore oil breach as of 2010—21.2–33.5 million gal oil released during first 6weeks, based on USGS rough estimates Hundreds of miles of coastal habitats threatened Methods tried: dome, cap, siphoning, controlledburns, “top kill,” “junk shot,” and relief wellsControlled burns attempt tocontain oil pumping into theGulf, one month after the2010 well blow-out.

Lesson 17.3 Consequences of Fossil Fuel UseDamage Caused by Extracting Fuels Mining: Humans risk lives and respiratory health. Ecosystems are damaged by habitatdestruction, extensive erosion, acid drainage,and heavy metal contamination downslopeof mines. Oil and gas extraction: Roads and structures built to support drillingbreak up habitats and harm ecosystems. The longterm consequences of accidents canbe uncertain or unpredictableAcid drainage from a coal mine

Lesson 17.3 Consequences of Fossil Fuel UseDependence on Foreign Sources Fossil fuels are not evenly distributed over the globe, sosome countries must import fuel sources. Nations that import fuel may bevulnerable to changes in fuel pricesset by suppliers. Nations can import less fuel bydeveloping domestic oil sourcesand renewable energy sources.

Lesson 17.3 Consequences of Fossil Fuel UseEnergy Conservation Practice of reducing energy use to make fossilfuels last and to prevent environmentaldamage Transportation: Gas-efficient cars and higher gasprices could help conserve energy in the U.S. Personal choices: Individuals can save energy byturning off lights, taking public transit, and buyingenergy-efficient appliances.Did You Know? Transportation accountsfor 2/3 of U.S. oil consumption.

BP Oil Spill 2010 Gulf of MexicoMassive Oil Spill Gulf of Mexico1. How did the oil spill occur?2. Describe how the spill affected plant and animal life3. How many miles of ocean is unsafe to fish in?BP Oil Spill 5 Years Later1. Why wouldn’t Authorities want pictures being shown inthe media?2. Who put in the most time to help salvage the situation?3. Why was it the worst time for an oil spill?4. How much money is it going to take to rebuild just one ofthe islands?5. Does the oil spill situation surprise you? Why or whynot?