Transcription

2021 National Trade Estimate Report onFOREIGN TRADEBARRIERSUNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is responsible for the preparation of thisreport. U.S. Trade Representative Katherine Tai gratefully acknowledges the contributions of all USTRstaff to the writing and production of this report and notes, in particular, the contributions of Julie McNeesand Spencer Smith.Thanks are extended to partner Executive Branch members of the Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC).The TPSC is composed of the following Executive Branch entities: the Departments of Agriculture,Commerce, Defense, Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Interior, Justice, Labor,State, Transportation, and Treasury; the Environmental Protection Agency; the Office of Management andBudget; the Council of Economic Advisers; the Council on Environmental Quality; the U.S. Agency forInternational Development; the Small Business Administration; the National Economic Council; theNational Security Council; the Office of the United States Trade Representative; and, non-voting memberthe U.S. International Trade Commission. In preparing the report, substantial information was solicitedfrom U.S. Embassies.Office of the United States Trade RepresentativeAmbassador Katherine Tai

LIST OF FREQUENTLY USED ACRONYMSAD .AGOA .APEC .APHIS . ASEAN .BIT .CAFTA–DR .CBERA .CBI .CVD .DOL .DSB .DSU .EU1 .FTA .GATT .GATS .GDP .GI .GPA .GSP .HS .HTS .ICT .ILO .IP .ITA .KORUS .MFN .MOU .MRL .NAFTA .OECD.SBA .SME .SPS .1AntidumpingAfrican Growth and Opportunity ActAsia-Pacific Economic CooperationAnimal and Plant Health Inspection ServiceAssociation of Southeast Asian NationsBilateral Investment TreatyDominican Republic–Central America–UnitedStates Free Trade AgreementCaribbean Basin Economic Recovery ActCaribbean Basin InitiativeCountervailing DutyU.S. Department of LaborWTO Dispute Settlement BodyWTO Dispute Settlement UnderstandingEuropean UnionFree Trade AgreementGeneral Agreement on Tariffs and TradeGeneral Agreement on Trade in ServicesGross Domestic ProductGeographical IndicationWTO Agreement on Government ProcurementGeneralized System of PreferencesHarmonized System CodeHarmonized Tariff Schedule CodeInformation and Communication TechnologyInternational Labor OrganizationIntellectual PropertyWTO Information Technology AgreementUnited States-Korea Free Trade AgreementMost-Favored-NationMemorandum of UnderstandingMaximum Residue LimitNorth American Free Trade AgreementThe Organization for Economic Cooperation andDevelopmentU.S. Small Business AdministrationSmall and Medium-Sized EnterpriseSanitary and PhytosanitaryUnless specified otherwise, all references to the European Union refer to the EU-27.

TBT .TFA .TIFA.TRQ .USAID .USDA .USMCA .USTR .VAT .WTO .Technical Barriers to TradeWTO Trade Facilitation AgreementTrade and Investment Framework AgreementTariff-Rate QuotaU.S. Agency for International DevelopmentU.S. Department of AgricultureUnited States–Mexico–Canada AgreementUnited States Trade RepresentativeValue-Added TaxWorld Trade Organization

TABLE OF CONTENTSFOREWORD . 1ALGERIA . 7ANGOLA . 13ARAB LEAGUE . 19ARGENTINA . 25AUSTRALIA . 37BAHRAIN . 43BANGLADESH . 47BOLIVIA . 55BRAZIL . 59BRUNEI DARUSSALAM . 71BURMA . 75CAMBODIA . 79CANADA . 83CHILE . 91CHINA . 95COLOMBIA . 131COSTA RICA . 137COTE D’IVOIRE . 143DOMINICAN REPUBLIC . 147ECUADOR . 151EGYPT. 161EL SALVADOR . 167ETHIOPIA . 171EUROPEAN UNION . 177GHANA . 229GUATEMALA . 237HONDURAS . 241HONG KONG . 245INDIA . 247INDONESIA . 271ISRAEL . 287JAPAN . 291JORDAN . 309KENYA . 313KOREA . 323KUWAIT . 337LAOS . 341MALAYSIA . 345MEXICO . 353MOROCCO . 365NEW ZEALAND. 369NICARAGUA. 373NIGERIA . 379NORWAY . 387OMAN . 391PAKISTAN . 395

PANAMA . 405PARAGUAY .