Ethernet Tutorial:Standards and Technology;Status and TrendsJonathan ThatcherChief Technologist, World Wide PacketsChair, Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance

Agenda – Part I (of VI)Ethernet -- The Big PictureEthernet 101ggIEEE 802.3 Context and Standards ProcessA Brief History of NetworkingHigh Level OverviewsggggGigabit Ethernet (GbE)10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE)Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) Power via MediaDependent Interface (MDI)Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM)

Agenda – Part II (of VI)Digging Deeper10 Gigabit EthernetgggTechnology OverviewApplicationsLAN / WAN PHYs; Optics; LayersEthernet In The First MilegggggTechnology OverviewOperations, Administration, & Management (OAM)Point to point (P2P)Ethernet over unclassified copper (EDSL; EFMCu)Point to multi-point (P2MP; EPON)

Agenda – Part III (of VI)Technology ComparisonResilient Packet Ring (RPR; 802.17)ggggggTechnology n

Agenda – Part IV (of VI)Fiber and OpticsTechnologyg Product implementation vs. sublayersg Optics 101g Challenges in high speed (low cost) opticsg Changes in specification methodologyPutting Down The Fiberg Fiber recommendationsg Cost of fiber infrastructureg Alternative Examples:nnMicrotrenchingMicroconduit

Agenda – Part V (of VI)Trends and InfluencesggggggggTowards SimplificationTowards higher speed; lower cost vs. Moore’s LawEthernet to the rescue in the Access SpaceQOS and OAM can be and must be solvedEconomic models can support “True BroadbandServices”Distractions or complementsFederal regulation and policy will be the singlegreatest influence on technology developmentInvestment as a positive feedback system

Agenda – Part VI (of VI)Related OrganizationsggggEthernet in the First Mile Alliance(EFMA)10 Gigabit Ethernet Alliance (10GEA)Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF)Fibre Channel (FC)

The Big PictureEthernet BasicsStandards Process

Robert Metcalfe’s Drawingof the first Ethernet design

How CSMA/CD Works – Party LinegIs anyone on line?nngIf yes, try again laterIf no, ring the addressyou want to talk withDid anyone else try toget on “at the sametime” you did?nnIf yes, try again laterIf no, you own themedia

Ethernet Basics, and MaturationCollision (CSMA/CD resolution)10BASE2 or 10BASE5 (Coax Cable, Bus Topology, 1985)RepeaterDedicated MediaCollision (CSMA/CD resolution)UTPCSMA/CD:UTPCarrier SenseMultiple Accesswith CollisionUTPUTPDetectionHalf-Duplex 10BASE-T (Star Topology, UTP cable, 1990)Bridge/SwitchUTPUTPCollision-FreeSource: Luke Maki, Boeing Corporation, 2002Full Duplex 10/100BASE-T (1992/1993)

Ethernet Basics, and MaturationCollision (CSMA/CD resolution)10BASE2 or 10BASE5 (Coax Cable, Bus Topology, 1985)RepeaterDedicated MediaCollision (CSMA/CD resolution)UTPUTPUTPUTPHalf-Duplex 10BASE-T (Star Topology, UTP cable, 1990)Bridge/SwitchUTPUTPCollision-FreeSource: Luke Maki, Boeing Corporation, 2002Full Duplex 10/100BASE-T (1992/1993)

Ethernet Basics, and MaturationCollision (CSMA/CD resolution)10BASE2 or 10BASE5 (Coax Cable, Bus Topology, 1985)RepeaterDedicated MediaCollision (CSMA/CD resolution)UTPUTPUTPUTPHalf-Duplex 10BASE-T (Star Topology, UTP cable, 1990)Bridge/SwitchUTPUTPCollision-FreeFull Duplex 10/100BASE-T (1992/1993)

Ethernet:Layer 1 & 2 of the OSI Stack802.3 Layer ModelOSI Layer ModelLogical Link ControlApplicationMAC Control (Opt)PresentationMedia Access ControlSessionReconciliation SublayerTransport(XG) MIINetworkDatalinkPhysicalPhysical Coding SublayerPhysical Medium AttachmentPhysical Medium DependentMDIMedia

802 Overview & Architecture802.2 Logical Link Control802.10IEEE Std 802.2, ISO 8802-2-1989SILS802.1 MAC BridgingIEEEIEEE Std nagement802.3802.4CSMA/CD WARPROSILayer1ISO802.7 Broadband TAG (BBTAG)IEEE 802.7-1989802.8 Fiber Optic TAG (FOTAG)IEEE 802.8-1987

IEEE 802 Working Groups802.1802.2802.3802.4Higher Layer LAN Protocols Working GroupLogical Link Control Working Group (Inactive)Ethernet Working GroupToken Bus Working Group (Inactive)802.5Token Ring Working Group (Inactive)802.6Metropolitan Area Network Working Group (Inactive)802.7Broadband TAG (Inactive)802.8Fiber Optic TAG (Disbanded)802.9Isochronous LAN Working Group (Inactive)802.10 Security Working Group (Inactive)802.11 Wireless LAN Working Group802.12 Demand Priority Working Group (Inactive)802.13 Not Used802.14 Cable Modem Working Group (Inactive)802.15 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) Working Group802.16 Broadband Wireless Access Working Group802.17 Resilient Packet Ring Working Group

System Model – Switched EthernetSLA and gTableMedia Access Controland Physical Layer Interface802.3 TAStationMDIOPHYMMDWANMANEANLAN

The Ethernet Packet7 OCTETS1 OCTET6 OCTETS6 OCTETS2 OCTETS46 –1500OCTETS4 OCTETSPreambleStart of Frame DelimiterDestination AddressSource AddressLength / Type FieldMAC Client DataPadFrame Check SequenceExtensionOCTETS WITHIN FRAME TRANSMITTED TOP TO BOTTOM; LSB to MSB

Ethernet Packet VLAN Tag7 OCTETS1 OCTET6 OCTETS6 OCTETS4 OCTETS2 OCTETS46 –1500OCTETS4 OCTETSPreambleStart of Frame DelimiterDestination AddressSource AddressVLAN Tag (802.3ac)Length / Type FieldMAC Client DataPadFrame Check SequenceExtensionOCTETS WITHIN FRAME TRANSMITTED TOP TO BOTTOM; LSB to MSB

IEEE 802 OverviewIEEEIEEE-SAStandards AssociationStandards BoardRevComReview CommitteeIEEE 802Sponsor GroupNesComNew Stds. CommitteeIEEE 802.3Working GroupIEEE P802.3afTask ForceIEEE P802.3ahTask Force

Process in SummaryggCall for interestWrite and get PAR approvednnggggDefine the objectivesAnswer 5 criteriaBrainstorm, recruit proposals & ideasCut-off new proposals& adopt base-line or “core proposal”Write; review; refine & approve draftsPublishNote: ALL TECHNICAL VOTES MUST PASS BY 75%

The 5 Criteria1. Broad Market PotentialBroad set(s) of applications // Multiple vendors, multiple usersbalanced cost, LAN vs. attached stations2. Compatibility with IEEE Standard 802.3Conformance with CSMA/ CD MAC, PLS // Conformance with 802.23. Distinct IdentitySubstantially different from other 802.3 specs/ solutionsUnique solution for problem (not two alternatives/ problem)Easy for document reader to select relevant spec4. Technical FeasibilityDemonstrated feasibility; reports -- working modelsProven technology, reasonable testing // Confidence in reliability5. Economic FeasibilityCost factors known, reliable data // Reasonable cost for performanceexpected // Total Installation costs considered

Other Things Ethernet There is a strong cultural history to:gggggLeave the MAC aloneProvide 10X performance at 3-4X the costMinimize number of PHYs per media typeDevelop a standard that guaranteesinteroperability “plug and play”Spec 10e-12 BER;ngExpect better than 10e-15Attempt to achieve 100% consensus

10GbE Original allotTFReview}PAR ApprovedNOVJANMARMAYJULYSEPTObjectives DraftedNOVJANMARMAYJULYSEPTPAR DraftedLast NewProposal;AdoptCoreProposalLastFeatureLast TechnicalChangeNOVDraft 5SEPTDraft 4JULYDraft 3MAY2001Draft 1MAR2000Draft 21999JANMAR

10GbE Schedule AccompliTaskForceFormedSEPTObjectives DraftedNOVJANMARMAYJULYSEPTPar DraftedLast NewProposal;AdoptCoreProposalLastFeatureLast TechnicalChangeNOVJANMARMAYDraft 4.1Draft 4.2Draft 4.3Draft 5.0JULYDraft 3.3Draft 3.4Draft 4.0MAYDraft 3MARDraft 2.1JANDraft 2NOVDraft 1SEPTJULY2001Draft 3.22000Draft 1.11999MAYLMSCBallotTFReviewPAR ApprovedMARSTD!WGBallotDraft 3.1HSSGFORMEDJULY

Return with commentIEEE 802.3 Ballot ProcessRevCom & IEEEStandards BoardApprove802 (LMSC or Sponsor)Approve802.3 Working GroupApprove802.3** Task Force(e.g., 802.3ah EFM)ApprovedStandard

10GbE Sponsor Ballot ResultsVoters: 109D4.0D4.1D4.2D4.3 2%82%86%88%96%


Enterprise NetworkinggDumb terminalsnggggggattached tomainframesStar wiredRelatively shortdistancesHigh reliabilityEasy to maintainLowest cost (?)Mission criticalNote: IEEE 802 formed in 1980circa 80

Ethernet – CSMA/CDgCarrier sense multipleaccess with collisiondetectionngggggggcirca 83Simplex operationShared media (taps)Relatively shortdistanceLow reliabilityDifficult to maintainDifficult to upgradeLowest cost (?)Applications?True of all immatureshared media topologies

Enterprise NetworkinggggDumb terminalemulation cards in PCsStill mission criticalEnter LOTUS 1-2-3Sneakernetcirca 85

Enterprise NetworkinggggggDumb terminalemulation cardsstill in PCs(mission critical)Ethernet cardsalso (PC-based SWbecoming missioncritical) 2x the work ½ the reliability 2x the expensecirca 86

Ethernet HubsgCSMA/CD – Half Duplexnnnngggggcirca 85-86Star wiredPoint-to-point onlyNo shared mediaBut, protocol behaveslike shared mediaIncreased distanceHigher reliabilityEasier to maintainEasy upgrade pathHigher cost101010101010

Switched EthernetgFull Duplexnnnnnggggggcirca 87No collisions!Star wiredPoint-to-point onlyNo shared mediaTransmitter does notmonitor RcvrIncreased distanceHighest reliabilityEasiest to maintainEasiest to upgradeHigher costHigher performance101010101010

Fiber Optic Inter-Repeater LinkFOIRLFiber OpticLink SegmentsRepeater SetDTEMAURepeater SetRepeater Set10BASE-T LinkSegmentsDTEMAU

Fiber Optic Inter-Repeater Linkggg10BASE-F Clauses 15-18Star Wired;DistancennnnggggFOIRL10BASE-FP: 1 km; Half Duplex10BASE-FB: 2 km; Half Duplex10BASE-FL: 2 km; Half or Full DuplexOther distances apply with multiple segments850 nm LED; 62.5/125 MMFBER 10e-9802.3d-1987 (9.9)10 December 1987 (IEEE)

10BASE-Tgggcirca 90Inexpensive mediaInexpensive portsInstallation ease101010101010

Enterprise NetworkingggggggDumb terminals goneEmulators built intoPC SW for legacyapplicationsMainframes on FDDIringsWide area connectionvia T1 linesSerious applicationof shared storageSerious DBapplicationscirca 90101010101010

Fast Ethernet – 100BASE-X10100101010010010101010Introduction of multi-speed topologies

Fast Ethernet – 100BASE-XIEEE 802.3ugPretty much a shift in decimal place from 10BASE-TgCSMA/CD Full DuplexgCat 3 Cat 5 Copper Technology (100BASE-T)gOptical technology from FDDI (100BASE-FX)n 2 km over MMFn (10 km over SMF)gIntroduces high speed aggregation betweenswitchesSorry Token Ring

100BASE-FX26.2 Functional SpecificationsggThe 100BASE-FX PMD (and MDI) is specified byincorporating the FDDI PMD standard, ISO/IEC 9314-3:1990, by reference Total of 2 pages (excluding PICS)CharacteristicsggStar Wired (not counter-rotating ring)1310 nm LED over 62.5/125 MMFnggg50 MMF SMF with laser outside stdNRZ: Bit Transition 1; No Transition 0100 Mbps data rate; 10e-8 BER125 Mbps using 4B/5B encoding line rate

Gigabit Ethernet – 1000BASE-X100010001000Extension of multi-speed topologies

Gigabit EthernetIEEE 802.3zgggCSMA/CD Full DuplexCarrier ExtensionSerial technology from Fibre Channelnnnn1000BASE-CX copper, Twin-ax, generally unused1000BASE-SX 850 nm, MMF1000BASE-LX 1310 nm, SMF/MMFUses 8B/10B codeIEEE 802.3abgSupport of CAT-5 (CAT-5E) cable: 1000BASE-TSorry ATM

Fast Ethernet to GigE UpgradeSee:

1000BASE-TIEEE 802.3abgSupports both full & half duplex (CSMA/CD)nBut, no one uses CSMA/CD mode at 1 Gigg1000Mbps Ethernet service over 100 metersof same Category 5 links ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A.100BASE-T.gSame auto-negotiation system as 100BASE-TXngEnable PHYs capable of both 100 and 1000 MbpsSpecifications for field testing of twisted pair cablingsystem with the additional test parameters for FEXT(ELFEXT)

250 Mbps Bi-Directional on Each Pair

The Challenge: NEXT & FEXT

Gigabit Ethernet Beyond CampusgIEEE 802.3z specifies 5km over SMFgTransceivers extended distance & bandwidth:nnnngOwnership significantly less than cost ofT1/ATM/SONET nng10 km, 1310 nm, SMF immediately (LX )40 km, 1550 nm, within 1 year (proprietary, common pkg)100 km within 2 years4 Gbps using 802.3ad and WDM in 3 yrs ( 40 km)Spokane school district (GigE to every school over fiber)CANARIE project (see new market segmentsnnYipes, Telseon, OnFiber Grant County, WA; Provo, UT; Jacksonville, FL .

Link AggregationIEEE 802.3adgAbility to take N links between commonnodes – point-to-point – and aggregate asubset as virtual linkgIdeal for intermediate speeds .gIdeal for TDM & WDM – non-standard –solutionsgUtilization of the N * Serial conceptnStarted in HIPPI for 10Gignn12 x 1 Gig parallel opticscirca 1994?

10 Gigabit Ethernet1 of 2IEEE 802.3aegMAC: It’s Just EthernetnnngPHY: LAN & WAN PHYsnngMaintains 802.3 frame format & sizeFull duplex operation onlyThrottled to 10.0 for LAN PHY or 9.58464 Gbps for WAN PHYLAN PHY uses simple encoding mechanisms to transmit dataon dark fiber & dark wavelengthsWAN PHY adds a SONET framing sublayerto utilize SONET/SDH as layer 1 transportPMD: Optical Media Onlynnnn850 nm on variety of MMF types (28m ) to 300m1310 nm, 4 lambda, WDM to 300 m on MMF; 10 km on SMF1310 nm on SMF to 10 km1550 nm on SMF to 40 km

10 Gigabit Ethernet2 of 2gggggggSupports dark wavelength and SONET/TDMwith unlimited reachSeveral coding schemes – 64b/66b; 8B/10B;scramblersThree optional interfaces: XGMII; XAUI; XSBIExtension of MDIO interfaceContinues Ethernet’s reputation for cost effectiveness& simplicity – goal 10X performance for 3X costStandard ratified in June 2002Business and economic success TBDSorry Who?

Overview of DTEPower

P802.3af DTE PowergAKA “Power over Ethernet”gProvides up to 13W to a connected devicennnnngIP phoneWeb camWireless access pointSecurity, lighting, HVAC controlsEnables many new types of devicesSupports 10, 100, 1000BASE-Tn