Bell Ringer1) In the simple ecosystem shown below,determine the species richness.

2) “The specific environment in which anorganism lives, including biotic and abioticfactors” is the definition of which term below?a) Nicheb) Ecosystemc) Habitatd) Biomee) Community

3) An organism’s role in the flow of energy, itsresource consumption and its species-speciesinteractions all make up itsa) Habitatb) Nichec) Ecosystemd) Biomee) Predator-prey relationships

4) The graph below best describes which biome?a)b)c)d)e)Tropical Dry ForestTundraTemperate grasslandSavannaTropical Rain Forest

Energy Flow and Food WebsPgs 148-150

Energy Movement Of all the species-species interactions withinan ecosystem, the most important is themovement of energy. As an organism feeds on another, matter andenergy are moved through the ecosystem.

Energy – Review The ultimate source of energy for earth is the Sun. Through photosynthesis, autotrophs convert solarenergy into chemical energy in the form ofglucose. Autotrophs and heterotrophs then use the processof cellular respiration to convert chemical energyin glucose into ATP.

Energy Movement Trophic Level – rank in the feeding (energy)hierarchy. There are three primary trophic levels in everyecosystem:– Producers– Consumers– Detritivores and decomposers

Trophic Levels Producer – an organism that uses energyfrom sunlight to produce food.

Trophic Levels Producer – an organism that uses energyfrom sunlight to produce food. Form first trophiclevel of anyfood chain Examples:Plants, Algae

Trophic Levels Primary Consumer – an organism which getsits energy from producers.Example: Ants, Caterpillars,Deer

Trophic Levels Secondary Consumer – an organism whichgets its energy from primary consumers.Example: Birds, Spiders, Lion

Trophic Levels Tertiary Consumer – an organism which getsits energy from secondary consumers.Example: Owls feed on rodents that feed on grasshoppers

Trophic Levels Top – Level Consumer – A consumer at thetop of the food chain. (This consumer has no predators).Example: Humans, Bald Eagles

Trophic Levels Detritivores – break down the waste productsor dead bodies of organisms within theecosystem.Example: Millipedes, soil insects Decomposers – break down leaf litter andother nonliving matter into simpler nutrients.Example: Fungi, Bacteria

Trophic Levels Detritivores and Decomposers help recyclenutrients into the soil and help dispose ofdead organisms.

Food Chains Food chain – a linear series of feedingrelationships, showing how energy movesupward through the trophic levels.

Food Chains In a food chain, arrows point toward thetransfer of energy (not to who is eating!)

Food Webs A more accurate depiction of how energymoves through ecosystems is a food web. Food web – a visual map of feedingrelationships, highlighting the various paths bywhich energy passes among organisms of anecosystem.

Food webs

Creating a Food Web

Bell Ringer1)The eagle is an example of a) Producerb) Primary Consumerc) Secondary Consumerd) Tertiary Consumere) Top-Level Consumer

Bell Ringer2) In this food chain, anexample of a tertiaryconsumer would be a) Green plantsb) Insectsc) Fishd) Big Fishe) Eagle

Bell Ringer3) What trophic level ismissing from thisfood chain?a) Producersb) Consumersc) Detritivores/Decomposersd) Autotrophse) Heterotrophs

Bell Ringer – AP Practice4) A decomposer wouldrecycle nutrients back to a a) Producerb) Detritivorec) Secondary Consumerd) Tertiary Consumere) Primary Consumer

Creating a Food Web – The LAST Day

Energy Pyramid 10% Rule –Only about 10%of the energy availableat one trophic level istransferred toorganisms at the nexttrophic level.

Numbers Pyramid Numbers pyramids reflect the species evennessvalues of an ecosystem.

Numbers Pyramid Why are there fewer consumers at the top ofthe pyramid compared to the bottom?

Numbers Pyramid With the loss of energy occurring at eachlevel, there is not enough energy to support alarge amount of life at the top of the pyramid.

Keystone species Numbers pyramid Invasive species