GMAT in a NutshellJoern Meissner, PhD (Columbia Business th4thEditionEdition2012 yath StudGMAT M Guideyath StudGMAT M , PhD4th) 1 (212Edition0316 Guide, PhDeissnerJoern MargeTurboYcohur GMATargeTurboYcohur GMATla NutshelGMAT inReviewGrammar rrection GuideCoorkceFramewSentenasoningrategiesCritical Re mprehension StCoginenCont tReadedncvaasic to Adbystion ListSet QueTraTraininglenginge & Chal 0 Quest14Complet–nglvi0 QuesSoProblemlutionsensive SoCompreh trationsIllusGraphicysKeerswQuick Anurs)(100 Ho wnloads ADoFree Webomreview.cnhattanauderbal StGMAT V , PhDJoern Mryy Glossa etMath KeCheat-SheFormulae rencefeReQuickalysis-Topic AnTopic-by vanced ContentAdpicBasic toms by sds AvailaMBA AdDownloaFree Webof theemarksstered trad (GMAC).are regiGMAT CAT Admission CouncilGMAT andmentManageherein.Graduatecontentanyoructthis prodowner ofwith theionCompaneissnereissnerJoern MargeTurboYcohur GMATGMAT and GMAT CAT are registered trademarks of theGraduate Management Admission Council (GMAC).GMAC does not endorse nor is it affiliated in any waywith the owner of this product or any content herein.2014thof theemarksstered trad (GMAC).are regiGMAT CAT Admission CouncilGMAT andmentManageherein.Graduatecontentanyoructthis prodowner ofwith the) 1 (212Edition0316 -200anhatta20w1w2w.mpaniondy Comuerbal StGMAT V , PhDeissnerJoern MargeTurboYcohur GMATtby Concepstion List ning Sets:Set Queainging Tr tionsTraininglealChe&0 QuesCompletction – 25nsCorreestioesSentence oning – 60 Quas40 PassagCritical Re mprehension –CotionsReadingluensive So avigationection NCompreh

GMAT in a NutshellAbout the GMAT5th Edition (December 16th, 2012)275 Madison Ave, Suite 424New York, NY 10016Phone: 1 (212) 316-2000Free: 1 (800) 246-4600Europe: 44 20 7060 9800Asia: 65 1999–2012 Manhattan Review. All Rights Reserved.

iiAbout the GMATCopyright and Terms of UseCopyright and TrademarkAll materials herein (including names, terms, trademarks, designs, images and graphics) arethe property of Manhattan Review, except where otherwise noted. Except as permitted herein,no such material may be copied, reproduced, displayed or transmitted or otherwise used without the prior written permission of Manhattan Review. You are permitted to use materialherein for your personal, non-commercial use, provided that you do not combine such material into a combination, collection or compilation of material. If you have any questionsregarding the use of the material, please contact Manhattan Review at [email protected] material may make reference to countries and persons. The use of such references is forhypothetical and demonstrative purposes only.ÊTerms of UseBy using this material, you acknowledge and agree to the terms of use contained herein.No WarrantiesThis material is provided without warranty, either express or implied, including the impliedwarranties of merchantability, of fitness for a particular purpose and non-infringement. Manhattan Review does not warrant or make any representations regarding the use, accuracy orresults of the use of this material.Ê This material may make reference to other source materials. Manhattan Review is not responsible in any respect for the content of such other sourcematerials, and disclaims all warranties and liabilities with respect to the other source materials.Limitation on LiabilityManhattan Review shall not be responsible under any circumstances for any direct, indirect,special, punitive or consequential damages (“Damages”) that may arise from the use of thismaterial. In addition, Manhattan Review does not guarantee the accuracy or completeness ofits course materials, which are provided “as is” with no warranty, express or implied. Manhattan Review assumes no liability for any Damages from errors or omissions in the material,whether arising in contract, tort or otherwise.GMAT is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council.GMAC does not endorse nor is it affiliated in any way with the owner of this product or anycontent herein.Last updated on December 16, 2012.Manhattan Review, 275 Madison Avenue, Suite 424, New York, NY 10025.Phone: 1 (212) 316-2000. E-Mail: [email protected] Web: 1999–2012 Manhattan Review

About the GMATiiiAbout the Turbocharge your GMAT SeriesThe highly acclaimed Turbocharge Your GMAT series is the result of the arduous effort of Manhattan Review to offer the most comprehensive and clear treatment of theconcepts tests in the GMAT. The Manhattan Review Turbocharge Your GMAT preparation materials include over 600 pages of well-illustrated and professionally presentedstrategies and originally written problems for both the Verbal Section and Quantitative Section, 200 pages of detailed solutions, and more than 300 pages of internallydeveloped Quantitative Glossary and Verbal Vocabulary List with detailed definitions,related words and sentence examples. The detailed breakdown of exclusive practiceproblems per category is 40 Reading Comprehension passages, 60 Critical Reasoningquestions, 250 Sentence Correction questions, and 300 Quantitative questions.Manhattan Review uses this material when delivering its weekend crash courses, oneweek intensive courses, weekday and weekend long courses, online workshops, freeseminars, and private tutoring to students in the US, UK, Continental Europe, Asia andthe rest of the world. Please visit to find out more and alsotake a free GMAT practice test! Math Study Guide (ISBN: 978-1-62926-000-6)Math Study Companion (ISBN: 978-1-62926-001-3)Verbal Study Guide (ISBN: 978-1-62926-002-0)Verbal Study Companion (ISBN: 978-1-62926-003-7) 1999–2012 Manhattan

ivAbout the GMATAbout the CompanyManhattan Review’s origin can be traced directly to an Ivy-League MBA classroom in1999. While lecturing on advanced quantitative subjects to MBAs at Columbia BusinessSchool in New York City, Prof. Dr. Joern Meissner was asked by his students to assisttheir friends, who were frustrated with conventional GMAT preparation options. Hestarted to create original lectures that focused on presenting the GMAT content in acoherent and concise manner rather than a download of voluminous basic knowledgeinterspersed with so-called “tricks." The new approach immediately proved highly popular with GMAT students, inspiring the birth of Manhattan Review. Over the past 15 years, Manhattan Review has grown into a multi-national firm, focusing on GMAT, GRE,LSAT, SAT, and TOEFL test prep and tutoring, along with business school, graduateschool and college admissions consulting, application advisory and essay editing services.About the FounderProfessor Joern Meissner, the founder and chairman of Manhattan Review has overtwenty-five years of teaching experience in undergraduate and graduate programs atprestigious business schools in the USA, UK and Germany. He created the originallectures, which are constantly updated by the Manhattan Review Team to reflect theevolving nature of the GMAT GRE, LSAT, SAT, and TOEFL test prep and private tutoring.Professor Meissner received his Ph.D. in Management Science from Graduate School ofBusiness at Columbia University (Columbia Business School) in New York City and is arecognized authority in the area of Supply Chain Management (SCM), Dynamic Pricingand Revenue Management. Currently, he holds the position of Full Professor of Supply Chain Management and Pricing Strategy at Kuehne Logistics University in Hamburg,Germany. Professor Meissner is a passionate and enthusiastic teacher. He believes thatgrasping an idea is only half of the fun; conveying it to others makes it whole. Athis previous position at Lancaster University Management School, he taught the MBACore course in Operations Management and originated three new MBA Electives: Advanced Decision Models, Supply Chain Management, and Revenue Management. He hasalso lectured at the University of Hamburg, the Leipzig Graduate School of Management(HHL), and the University of Mannheim. Professor Meissner offers a variety of ExecutiveEducation courses aimed at business professionals, managers, leaders, and executiveswho strive for professional and personal growth. He frequently advises companiesranging from Fortune 500 companies to emerging start-ups on various issues relatedto his research expertise. Please visit his academic homepage for further 1999–2012 Manhattan Review

About the GMATvManhattan Review Advantagesñ Time Efficiency and Cost Effectiveness– The most limiting factor in test preparation for most people is time.– It takes significantly more teaching experience and techniques to prepare astudent in less time.– Our preparation is tailored for busy professionals. We will teach you whatyou need to know in the least amount of time.ñ High-quality and dedicated instructors who are committed to helping everystudent reach her/his goalsñ Manhattan Review’s team members have combined wisdom of– Academic achievements– MBA teaching experience at prestigious business schools in the US and UK– Career successñ Our curriculum & proprietary Turbocharge Your GMAT course materials– About 600 pages of well-illustrated and professionally presented strategiesand exclusive problems for both the Verbal and the Quantitative Sections– 200 pages of detailed solutions– 300-page of internally developed Quantitative and Verbal vocabulary list withdetailed definitions, related words and sentence examples– Challenging Online CATs (Included in any course payments; Available for separate purchases)ñ Combine with Private Tutoring for an individually tailored study packageñ Special Offer for Our Online Recording Library (Visit Online Library on ourwebsite)ñ High-quality Career, MBA & College Advisory Full Serviceñ Our Pursuit of Excellence in All Areas of Our ServiceVisit us often at International Locations for your local content!) 1999–2012 Manhattan

viAbout the GMATInternational Phone Numbers & Official Manhattan Review WebsitesManhattan HeadquartersUSA & CanadaAustraliaAustriaBelgiumChinaCzech RepublicFranceGermanyGreeceHong eSouth AfricaSouth KoreaSwedenSpainSwitzerlandTaiwanThailandUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomRest of 1-212-316-2000 1-800-246-4600 61-3-9001-6618 43-720-115-549 32-2-808-5163 1-212-316-2000 1-212-316-2000 33-1-8488-4204 49-89-3803-8856 1-212-316-2000 852-5808-2704 1-212-316-2000 1-212-316-2000 1-212-316-2000 1-212-316-2000 39-06-9338-7617 81-3-4589-5125 1-212-316-2000 31-20-808-4399 1-212-316-2000 1-212-316-2000 1-212-316-2000 1-212-316-2000 65-3158-2571 1-212-316-2000 1-212-316-2000 1-212-316-2000 34-911-876-504 41-435-080-991 1-212-316-2000 66-6-0003-5529 1-212-316-2000 44-20-7060-9800 1999–2012 Manhattan Review

Contents1 GMAT in a Nutshell1.1 Overview of GMAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1.1 2012 Changes in Test Administration . .1.1.2 GMAT Sections and Score Distributions1.1.3 Overview of Basic GMAT Concepts . . . .1.2 Key Test-taking and Preparation Strategies . . .1.2.1 Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.2 Data Sufficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.3 Sentence Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.4 Critical Reasoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.5 Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . .1.2.6 Analytical Writing Assessment . . . . . .1.2.7 Integrated Reasoning . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.8 Test Preparation Advice . . . . . . . . . .1.3 Taking the GMAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3.1 Schedule Your Test . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3.2 Test Fee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3.3 On the Test Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3.4 Score Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii.112591012131517181920212222222324

viiiwww.manhattanreview.comAbout the GMAT 1999–2012 Manhattan Review

Chapter 1GMAT in a Nutshell1.1Overview of GMATBusiness School applicants must take the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT).The GMAT is a standardized test delivered in English. Unlike academic grades, whichhave varying significance based on each school’s grading guidelines, the GMAT scoresare based on the same standard for all test takers and they help business schools assess the qualification of an individual against a large pool of applicants with diversepersonal and professional backgrounds. The GMAT scores play a significant role inadmissions decisions since they are more recent than most academic transcripts of anapplicant and they evaluate a person’s verbal, quantitative and writing skills.The GMAT is approximately 4-hour Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) and can be takenat any one of many test centers around the world 5 or 6 days a week. You