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FLORIDA KEYS INVASIVE EXOTICS TASK FORCE LIST OF INVASIVE PLANTS OF THE FLORIDA KEYS - 2019FLEPPC CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION ON FLORIDA EXOTIC PEST PLAN COUNCIL'S 2017 LIST OF FLORIDA'S MOST INVASIVE SPECIES. (N:north, C:central, S:south, All: Florida wide)SCIENTIFIC NAMECOMMON NAMEFLEPPCKEYS INVASION PATTERN AND COMMENTSSEEDINGDISPERSAL & SEASONERADICATION RECOMMENDATIONHandpulling always recommended when possibleFKIETF CATEGORY I: INVASIVE EXOTICS THAT ARE ALTERING FLORIDA KEYS NATIVE PLANT COMMUNITIES BY DISPLACING NATIVE SPECIES,CHANGING COMMUNITY STRUCTURES OR ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS, OR HYBRIDIZING WITH NATIVESCasuarina spp.Australian pine1: AllColubrina asiaticaLatherleaf1: SLeucaena leucocephalaLead treeManilkara zapotaSapodillaPanicum maximumGuinea grassSansevieria hyacinthoidesBowstring hempScaevolea taccadaBeach naupakaSchinus terebinthifoliusBrazilian pepperThespesia populneaPortia/Seasidemahoe2: All1: SInvasive in wetlands and uplands. Listed asnoxious weed.Woody vine. Invasive on beaches, coastal rockbarren, ditches, and swales; any place that istidally influenced.Forms thick monoculture in disturbed areas.Seeds persist for many years in seedbankPervasive in homesteaded hammocks, KeyDeer eat seedlings. Form dense canopy as wellas dense sapling recruitmentSpreading quickly along US1 and areas of BigPine. Common secondary invader.wind blown, year roundseeds float, year roundnearly year roundfruit year roundwind dispersed during2: Allsummer growing seasonspreads vegetatively and by2: C,S Large infestations have occurred in hammocks. seed. Roots can grow fromSpreads where dumped.leavesSeeds float and are easily dispersed totides/birds/animals, nearly1: C,Smangrove and coastal rock barren habitats.year roundInvasive in wetlands and uplands. Likes solution animals, late winter intospring1: All holes in hammock.Floating seeds invade pristine coastaltransistion areas. Also invades uplands. Still1: C,S sold in Florida stores.seeds float, year roundBasal with 10%-30% G4 or cut stump with 50%G3A. Listed as a prohibited plant and a noxiousweed by FDACSFoliar with 3% G4, cut stump with 50% G3A orBasal with 10%-20% G4. Listed as noxious weedby FDACSBasal with G4 30% or basal and cut stump with30% G4. Listed as noxious weed by FDACSBasal with 10%-25% G4, or cut stump with 50%G3AFoliar with 2% GlyphosateCut stump with 10% G3A, or foliar with 10% G4.Must be bagged and removed from siteBasal with 10% G4 or cut stump with 50% G3A.Listed as noxious weed by FDACSBasal with 10%-15% G4 or cut stump with 50%G3A. Listed as noxious weed by FDACSCut stump with 50% G3A or Basal with 10%-25%G4. Girdle large trees. Don't leave cut branches onground, stems will reroot.FKIETF CATEGORY II: INVASIVE EXOTICS THAT HAVE INCREASED IN ABUNDANCE OR FREQUENCY BUT HAVE NOT YET ALTERED FLORIDA KEYSPLANT COMMUNITIES TO THE EXTENT SHOWN BYCATEGORY I SPECIES (CONTINUED)Adenanthera pavoninaRed sandalwoodAgave sisalanaAlbizia lebbeckSisal hempWoman's tongueAntigonon leptopusCoral VineAsparagus aethiopicusCatharanthus roseusAsparagus fernCommonasparagus fernMadagascarperiwinkleCenchrus purpureumNapier grassAsparagus setaceus2: SFast growing & seeding from where planted,esp. hammocksbirds/animalstall reproductive stalksproduce pups which arespread when stalk falls tothe ground, summer-latefallwind blownEstablishes where dumped and spreads from2: C,S landscapes1: C,S Legume, difficult to kill.Isolated populations but spreads rapidly. Has2: Allvegetative and by seedbecome popular in landscapesSpreads from landscapes and establishes1: Allwhere dumpeddumping/birds/animalsBecoming increasingly more abundant in uppern/aKeysvegetative/dumpingn/a1: Alldisturbed sites, beachesPlanted for landscaping but is limited toroadsidesCut stump with 50% G3A or Basal with G4 10%Manual removal or apply 3% G4 or 15% G3A oncenter budCut stump with 50% G3A or basal with 20% G4Manual removal, Basal with 20% G4 or Foliar with2% GlyphosateFoliar with 2% Glyphosate or manual removalFoliar with 2% Glyphosate or manual removalwind blown and vegetativeManual removalwind dispersed seedsFoliar with 5% Glyphosate or cut stem with 10% G4

FLORIDA KEYS INVASIVE EXOTICS TASK FORCE LIST OF INVASIVE PLANTS OF THE FLORIDA KEYS - 2019FLEPPC CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION ON FLORIDA EXOTIC PEST PLAN COUNCIL'S 2017 LIST OF FLORIDA'S MOST INVASIVE SPECIES. (N:north, C:central, S:south, All: Florida wide)SCIENTIFIC NAMECenchrus setaceumCocos nuciferaCryptostegiamadagascariensisDactyloctenium aegyptiumCOMMON NAMEFountain grassCoconut palmMadagascarrubber vineCrowfoot grassDioscorea bulbifera **Air PotatoEpipremnum pinnatum cv.aureumGolden PothosEulophia graminea **ground orchidEugenia unifloraSurinam cherryFicus microcarpaLaurel figFlacourtia indicaGovernor's plumHylocereus undatusNight-bloomingcereusFLEPPCKEYS INVASION PATTERN AND COMMENTSPlanted for landscaping and is currentlyspreading on roadsides, medians and disturbedsites; seeds after mowingInvading into beach dune at Bahia Honda and in2: S hammock at Lignumvitae KeyViney shrub; Occurs in transitional wetlands2:C,S and hammocks. Spreads from old homesteadsin Upper KeysSo far seems to be limited to disturbed sites oras an early colonizer only at natural sites. Also2: Allfound invading into beach and dune at BahiaHondaVine; Invades variety of habitats: 23 FLcounties, Big Pine, Key Largo, & Cudjoe.1: All Spreads from landscapes and where dumbed.Killed by storm surge in some locations on BigPine.Large leafed vine. Spreads from landscapes2: C,Sand establishes where dumped.2: SSEEDINGDISPERSAL & SEASONERADICATION RECOMMENDATIONHandpulling always recommended when possiblewind dispersed seedsFoliar with 5% Glyphosate or cut stem with 10% G4seeds floatManual removalsummer, wind blownBasal with 10% G4wind blown, rhizomes andmowingFoliar with 2% Glyphosatevegetative and tubers which Manual removal, bag tubers and remove from site.floatListed as a noxious weed by FDACSvegetative, dumpingFoliar with 3% Glyphosate, cut stump with 25%G3A, or Basal with 10% G4Major problem on mainland. SpreadingManual removal including bulb and all rootthroughout Keys, found in Key Largo, Windley wind dispersed andstructures. Bag and remove from site.Key, Long Key, Duck Key, and Big Pine Key.spreads from contaminatedOriginal infestation from contaminated mulchmulch or equipmentbirds/animalsBasal with 10% G4 or cut stump with 50% G3A1: C,S escaping from landscapesInvasive in uplands in Upper Keys, epi- and litho1: C,SphyticbirdsBasal with 10% G4observed naturalizing on Key Largo, Key West,2: SRamrodanimalsCut stump with 50% G3A or basal with 20% G42n/aIndigofera suffruticosaIndigoferan/aJasminum fluminenseBrazilian jasmine 1: C, SKalanchoe spp.Life plant2:C,Sclimbing cactus; Spreads from landscapes anddump sites but is increasing in abundance andhas been observed in the interior of severalupper Keys hammocks . May be candidate forCat. I during next review. This species hasbecome popular due to its edible fruit; manycultivars are being produced.vegetative, animalsManual removal, bag and remove from site.becoming increasingly more abundant alongDOT ROW, Port B. in Dagny Johnson KLHBSP,Numerous seed podsBig Pine Key, Fort Zachary Taylor. Legume,often times needs multiple treatmentsVine; Large infestation found at MM 102, KeyWest and Ft. TaylorSpreads from landscapes and where dumped;localizedBasal or cut stump with 30% Garlon 4vegetative and seedsManual removal, cut stump with 50% G3A, or Basalwith 10% G4vegetativeManual removal, bag and remove from site.

FLORIDA KEYS INVASIVE EXOTICS TASK FORCE LIST OF INVASIVE PLANTS OF THE FLORIDA KEYS - 2019FLEPPC CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION ON FLORIDA EXOTIC PEST PLAN COUNCIL'S 2017 LIST OF FLORIDA'S MOST INVASIVE SPECIES. (N:north, C:central, S:south, All: Florida wide)SCIENTIFIC NAMECOMMON NAMELantana strigocamaraLantanaMacroptilium lathyroidesJumbie beanMelinis repensNatal grassMuntingia calaburaStrawberry treeNeyraudia reynaudianaBurma reedPhoenix dactyliferaSenegal DatePalmPhoenix reclinataDate palmPluchea carolinensisRicinus communisSchefflera actinophyllaSophora tomentosa var.occidentalisCure-for-allcastor beanQueenslandumbrella treeTexas NecklacepodWedeliaNettle-leafStachytarpheta cayennensis PorterweedSt. AugustineStenotaphrum secundatumgrassSphagneticola trilobataFLEPPCKEYS INVASION PATTERN AND COMMENTS1: AllSpreads from landscapes to hammock/pinelandmargins. Hybridizes with mainland lantana spp.disturbed edges but also in coastal berms anddunesOccurs roadside over the entire Keys; potentialproblem21: Alln/aInvasive on Big Pine KeyPrefers disturbed sites but moves intoundisturbed hammocks; occurs on all roadsides1: Sin Upper Keys; one fairly large patch treated onBig Pine KeyLocalized problem at Marquesas Keys and2: C,SCape FloridaFound in many homestead areas, can moven/ainto coastal habitatsBecoming more abundant in ruderal areas,particularly post Hurricane Irma in 2017.Problematic in pine rocklands on Big Pinewhere it outcompetes native shrubs andn/agroundcover and may alter fire ecology. Nolonger considered native to mainland Florida.Often secondary invader in Lower Keys.2: All1: C,Sn/a2: All2TBWSyngonium podophyllumArrowhead vine1: AllTabebuia heterophyllaPink shower treen/aTalipariti tiliaceumTamarindus indicaTecoma stansMahoe/seahibiscusTamarindYellow elder2: C,STBWn/aBecoming increasingly more abundant.Hammock and mangrove margins, disturbedsites and spoil islands in the Upper KeysBeach/dune, coastal rock barren. Hybridizeswith native Sophora tomentosa var. truncataviney groundcover; disturbed sites, beachesDisturbed sites and beach/dune habitat.Hybridizes with native porterweed.Landscape but invading into hammocks fromroadsides.SEEDINGDISPERSAL & SEASONbird and animal dispersed,year roundwind dispersed seedssummer growing season,wind dispersedbirds/animalswind dispersed seedsBasal with 10% G4 or cut stump with 50% G3AManual removalFoliar with 2% GlyphosateManual removal or cut stump with 50% G3A or 20%G4Foliar with 5% Glyphosate or cut stem with 10% G4.Listed as a noxious weed by FDACSManual removal, cut stump with 50% G3A, or apply10% G4 to apical budManual removal, cut stump with 50% G3A, or applyfruits dispersed by animals10% G4 to apical budfruits dispersed by animalsabundant, wind dispersedseeds. Quickly recruits intodistrubed areasSeedsbirds, summerManual removal or cut stump with 30% G3AManual removal, cut stump with 50% G3A or Basalwith 10% G4Basal with 10% G4 or cut stump with 50% G3Abird/animalCut stump 25% G3Ayear roundFoliar with 2% Glyphosate, Foliar with 1% G3A, orFoliar with 1% G4wind dispersed seedsManual removalrhizomes, growing summerseasonFoliar with 2% GlyphosateManual removal, cut stump with 25% G3A, Basalvegetativewith 10% G4, or Foliar with 3% G4Invading from landscape plantingsppgincreasingly more abundant. Has been found tospread far from seed source.wind dispersed seedsLimited to disturbed sitesNaturalizing throughout Keysmoving into hammocks from disturbed edgesERADICATION RECOMMENDATIONHandpulling always recommended when possibleseeds floatanimalswind dispersed seedsBasal or cut stump with 30% G4Cut stump with 50% G3A or Basal with 10% - 20%G4. Girdle large trees. Remove cut stems or theywill rerootBasal with 30% G4Basal with 20% G4

FLORIDA KEYS INVASIVE EXOTICS TASK FORCE LIST OF INVASIVE PLANTS OF THE FLORIDA KEYS - 2019FLEPPC CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION ON FLORIDA EXOTIC PEST PLAN COUNCIL'S 2017 LIST OF FLORIDA'S MOST INVASIVE SPECIES. (N:north, C:central, S:south, All: Florida wide)SCIENTIFIC NAMECOMMON NAMETerminalia catappaTropical almondTradescantia spathaceaOyster plantTribulus cistoidesPuncture weedYellow alder,RamGoatTurnera ulmifoliaUrena lobata **Caesar's weedFLEPPCoccasional problem on Keys coastlines and2: C,S near plantings. Seeds persist for many years inseed bank.Spreads from landscaping and establishes2: Swhere dumped. Sap can be irritating on skin.Along roadsides, disturbed areas and on2: All beachesTBW1: All2Washingtonia robustaChastetreeWashingtoniaPalmZamia furfuraceacardboard palmVitex trifolia **Zoysia matrella var. pacifica Zoysia grassSCIENTIFIC NAMECOMMON NAMEKEYS INVASION PATTERN AND COMMENTS2: C,STBWn/aFound along ROW on Big Pine, Bahia Honda,and Port B. in Dagny Johnson KLHBSPKey Largo Hammocks, Key Largo, Long Key,Summerland and Big Pine Key as a landscapetree. Becoming increasingly more abundant inthe landscape. Difficult to killSpreads from landscapesspreads from landscape; becoming morecommon in pine rocklands of Lower Keysspreads from landscape. Particular problem atresidence at N end of Bahia Honda wherespreading into coastal bermERADICATION RECOMMENDATIONHandpulling always recommended when possibleanimals/seeds floatvegetative and seeds arewind dispersedBasal with 10% G4 or cut stump with 50% G3AManual removal, bag and remove from site or Foliarwith 10% G4 and apply to budanimals, year roundManual removal, foliar with 2% Glyphosatevegetative and by seedManual removal or basal with 5% G4Seed capsule is stickyHandpullseed capsule splits to ejectseedsBasal with 30% G4Cut growing bud on small trees, manual removal, orapply 10% - 20% G4 to apical budbirdsrhizomesManual removal or foliar with 2% GlyphosaterhizomesFoliar with 2% Roundup ProSEEDINGERADICATION RECOMMENDATIONDISPERSAL & SEASONFKIETF CATEGORY III: INVASIVE EXOTICS THAT HAVE NOT YET BECOME A SERIOUS PROBLEM IN THE FLORIDA KEYS BUT ARE TO BE WATCHED (TBW).Acacia auriculiformisEarleaf acaciaAnredera vesicaria **Ardisia ellipticaArundo donaxMadeira vineShoebuttonardisiaPampas grassAsystasia gangeticaBauhinia variegataGanges primroseOrchid treeBroussonetia papyriferaPaper mulberryBucida bucerasBucida spinosaBlack OliveMing TreeCupaniopsis anacardioidesCarrotwoodDelonix regiaRoyal PoincianaFLEPPCDisturbed areas and beach dunesSEEDINGDISPERSAL & SEASONKEYS INVASION PATTERN AND COMMENTSLocal problem in Upper Keys; has appeared in1: C,S Lower KeysLocal problem in Upper Keys particularly inTBW Tavernier. Difficult to killM