No. 21-14CENTER FOR ARMY LESSONS LEARNED10 Meade Avenue, Building 50Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027BUILDING COHESIVE TEAMSlCOMBINED ARMSCENTER - TRAININGApproved for Public ReleaseDistribution Unlimited2021No. 21-142021U.S. ARMYCOMBINEDARMS CENTERApproved for Public ReleaseDistribution Unlimited

CENTER forARMY LESSONS LEARNEDThe Center for Army Lessons Learned leadsthe Army Lessons Learned Program anddelivers timely and relevant information toresolve gaps, enhance readiness, and informmodernization.DIRECTOR. COL Christopher KellerCALL ANALYST. Mr. Ron PruytPUBLISHING DIVISION CHIEF. Mr. Eric HillnerPUBLISHING AND DIGITAL MEDIA CHIEF EDITOR. Mrs. Diana KeelerEDITOR. Ms. Emily Swedlund10 MEADE AVE ILLUSTRATORBLDG 50 . Mrs. Julie GunterFORT LEAVENWORTHKANSAS 66027 SECURITY. Ms. Sandra [email protected] for ARMYLESSONS LEARNEDREQUEST FOR [email protected]

T E A M B U I L D I N G AT TH E SQU A D LEVELForeword“You have to take care of Soldiers and you can’t do it by lip servicebecause they will find you out. It has to come from the heart. If it isn’tgenuine, they’ll know it in a minute.”William G. Bainbridge, 5th Sergeant Major of the ArmyAs we continue to deploy our Soldiers to disparate geographic locationsaround the world, it is important to revisit how to build cohesive teams thatare highly trained, disciplined, and fit. First and foremost, there are no softskills, there is just good leadership. Basic attributes like communication,interpersonal skills, empathy, and compassion are traits that fall under theumbrella of leadership at large. Parallel to society, Army culture also evolves.With this continuous evolution, Army leaders must remain agile and adapt tothe needs of those they lead. Army leaders must exhibit genuine care for theirSoldiers and ask the tough questions. We must remember that caring alsomeans holding Soldiers accountable for their actions. When expectations areset, it is imperative that leaders follow through to ensure they are met.Leading Soldiers is an honor and a privilege. However, this endeavor issometimes difficult and does not come naturally for everyone. That isprecisely why publications like this are so important. We ask our leadersto continually seek self-improvement, and this handbook is a great place tostart. It will not provide you with all the answers, but it can serve as a roadmap to get you where you want to go.People First!Michael A. Grinston16th Sergeant Major of the Armyiii

T E A M B U I L D I N G AT TH E SQU A D LEVELTABLE OF CONTENTSIntroductionAbout this Handbook 9Chapter 1This is My Squad: Overview 11Section I: TeamsChapter 2Building the Team 17Chapter 3Resolving Conflict 27Chapter 4Establishing a Positive Climate 39Section II: IndividualsChapter 5Individual Characteristics 55Chapter 6Stressors and Behavior 59Chapter 7Compliance versus Commitment 65Appendix IClimate Assessment 69Glossary 75References 77v

CENT ER F OR ARMY L E S S O N S L E A R N E DFIGURESFigure 1-1. This is My Squad Overview. Adapted from SMA Grinston’s brief at the 2020Maneuver Conference. 13Figure 4-2. Factors that Contribute to Climate 44Figure 5-1. The Big 5 Continuum 57Figure 6-1. Organizational Stress 60Figure 7-1. Hierarchy of Commitment 66vi

T E A M B U I L D I N G AT TH E SQU A D LEVELTABLESTable 2-1. Team Leader and Team Member Roles and Responsibilities 24Table 3-1. Prioritizes, Organizes, and Coordinates Taskings 28Table 3-2. Process Conflict Indicators and Causes 29Table 3-3. Personal Conflict Indicators and Causes 31Table 3-4. Values Conflict Indicators and Causes 32Table 3-5. Information Conflict Indicators and Causes 33Table 3-6. Structural Conflict Indicators and Causes 35Figure 4-1. Climate versus Culture 40Table 4-1. Impact of Negative and Positive Climates on Organizations 41Table 6-1. Effects of Stress on the Mind, Mood, and Body 61Table 6-2. Adaptive Stress Reactions 61vii

T E A M B U I L D I N G AT TH E SQU A D LEVELINTRODUCTIONAbout this HandbookWHAT IS IN ITThis handbook contains information for leaders on how to build teams andcontribute individually to team success, including how to create a cohesiveclimate and resolve conflict. There are vignettes throughout the handbookto help illustrate key points. These vignettes are experiences from Soldiersacross the Army. Some are from the Sergeant Major of the Army’s (SMA)“This is My Squad” panel, while others were gathered from interviews withleaders and squad members at various locations.WHAT IS NOT IN ITThere is no discussion of leadership styles in this handbook. Current Armydoctrine no longer discusses leadership styles because they are too ‘squishy’and without boundaries, and therefore there is plenty of overlap between thedifferent styles of leadership. Styles are also dependent on team dynamics,such as cohort, rank, or position. Leaders must be flexible and adapt theirstyle to the situation.There may be areas in this handbook that seem like they need furtherdiscussion. Throughout this handbook there are references listed where aleader can go to learn more about a particular topic if interested.The Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) published a teambuildinghandbook, the Leader’s Guide to Teambuilding: Building Adaptive HighPerforming Teams, 15 January 2015. This handbook is not intended toreplace the previous version. The Leader’s Guide to Teambuilding was aboutbuilding “teams of leaders” in teams that did not have a habitual relationshipbetween the members, whereas this handbook incorporates the “This is MySquad” initiative.HOW TO USE THIS HANDBOOKThere are two sections in this handbook. The first section is for the leader ofthe team/squad, and discusses climate, conflict, and building the team.The second section covers individual characteristics, including values andemotions, stressors, and commitment and compliance.The reader should read both sections. We are all members of a squad and arelikely the leader of a different squad. This handbook helps both followersand leaders create the highly trained and ready squads that the Army needs tofight and win the nation’s wars.9

T E A M B U I L D I N G AT TH E SQU A D LEVELCHAPTER 1This is My Squad: Overview“This is a cultural change that I want to be positive. Who is in yoursquad? It’s not necessarily an infantry squad, but everyone has a teamof people we’re close with and take care of every day.” SMA Michael A. Grinston16th Sergeant Major of the ArmyThis is My Squad Live PanelJoint Base Lewis-McChordLeaders at all levels should take pride and ownership in their squad andeliminate the behavior that is corrosive to building cohesive squads. In thissense, a squad refers to more than the rifle or engineer squad. It is the groupof people you work with daily, the group for which you are responsible, andthey are responsible to you. This concept is what led to the development ofthe “This is My Squad” initiative, led by the Sergeant Major of the Army(SMA), Michael A. Grinston.Corrosive behavior can be best described as the behaviors that run contraryto Army values, like sexual harassment or assault, racism, suicide, alcoholincidents, and domestic violence. These behaviors are not present in cohesivesquads and teams. A cohesive squad or team will not display these corrosivebehaviors.Every person on the Army team, including Soldiers, Army civilianprofessionals, contractors, and each of their family members are all part ofa squad. Some of the squads you may lead, in others you may be a follower.Think of all the people you interact with on a daily or routine basis. Chancesare that you are part of their squad as well. In this handbook, the terms team,squad, group, and organization are synonymous and used interchangeably.In 1779, Friedrich Von Steuben published Regulations for the Order andDiscipline of the Troops of the United States, or the “Blue Book,” as it wascalled for the color of the paper on which it was printed. This book describedhow to train Soldiers, and what to train them on to prepare them for war.It is also considered the first leadership publication in the Army. It was sosuccessful that it stayed in print until 1812. Thoughts on Army leadershipcontinued to evolve and were codified in 1946 with the publication of FieldManual (FM) 22-5, Leadership Courtesy and Drill, 1 January 1946, and later11

CENT ER F OR ARMY L E S S O N S L E A R N E Din 1948 with the publication of Training Circular (TC) 6, Leadership, 10 July1948, and Department of the Army (DA) Pamphlet (PAM) 22-1, Leadership,December 1948. Though Army leadership theories have evolved, they havealso remained consistent in the sense that they have always been Soldierfocused. Another constant is the knowledge that to build high performingteams that can deploy, fight, and win in any environment, we have to havehighly trained, disciplined, physically fit, and cohesive organizations. Thisis not possible without mutual trust. Mutual trust is not possible withoutunderstanding. Understanding is not possible without knowing one another.The squad leader is the most influential member of the squad. To each squadmember, the squad leader is the leader with whom they are the closest and theperson they can most trust.The squad leader needs to take ownership of their squad. They must knowtheir Soldiers, Army civilian professionals, and other team members wellenough to know what motivates them, know their values and goals, as wellas their strengths and weaknesses. They must know when there is a potentialissue, be it personal or professional, before the issue becomes significantenough to affect team performance.There are four tenets that squads need to exhibit (depicted in Figure 1-1 in thedark green boxes). Squads must be: Cohesive, Trained, Disciplined, and Fit.Army doctrinal publications (ADPs), FMs, and Army techniques publications(ATPs), as well as handbooks from organizations such as the Center for theArmy Profession and Leadership (CAPL), cover the last three tenets. Thishandbook will attempt to expound upon CAPL’s work, referencing much ofit, and cover in detail the first tenet, building cohesive squads.Building a cohesive team is not a soft skill. It is good leadership, andaccomplished through feel, and being aware of team dynamics. However,there are principles and guidelines to follow. Instilling discipline, rewardingdesired behavior, and punishing behaviors detrimental to cohesiveness areall of part of building a high performing team. Figure 1-1 depicts the SMA’s“This is My Squad” initiative, and what the squad leader must do.12

T E A M B U I L D I N G AT TH E SQU A D LEVELFigure 1-1. This is My Squad Overview. Adapted from SMAGrinston’s brief at the 2020 Maneuver Conference.13


T E A M B U I L D I N G AT TH E SQU A D LEVELCHAPTER 2Building the TeamA team is any collection of people that functions together to perform amission or collective task. Army Doctrine Publication (ADP) 6-22Army Leadership and the Profession31 July 2019CATEGORIES OF TEAMSThe Army is a team of teams (squad of squads). These teams may be permanentor temporary, internal or external. For the purposes of this handbook, thinkof permanent teams as those assigned to the unit that you work with everyday. This may be your traditional squad, or it may be the platoon leader,platoon sergeant, and the squad leaders. A temporary team is a group that isselected for a specific mission, and after