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OV-10 BroncoCounterinsurgencyand The Vietnam WarPresented by the OV-10 Bronco Association

o Owns and operates theatMeacham International Airporto Collection of 24 Military Airplanes from 1943 to the Presento Conserving the History of North Texas Aviationo Home to OBA, The FAC Museum, The B-36 Peacemaker Museum

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War1. THE CONCEPT2. DESIGN COMPETITION3. YOV-10A PROTOTYPE4. THE OV-10A BRONCO5. FIELDING THE OV-10 IN VIETNAM1) MARINES SERVICE2) AIR FORCE SERVICE3) NAVY SERVICE6.OV-10 CHANGES DURING 1968-19757.CONCLUSION

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War 2 MARINE MAJORS, W.H. BECKETT ANDK.P. RICE DEVELOP THE CONCEPT OF L2VMA, 1960- LIVE WITH TROOPS- AVIATION AND GROUND ORDNANCE, 4 M60S- TAKEOFF FROM UNIMPROVED ROADS WRITE SPECIFICATION AND PRESENTATION BRIEF ANYONE WHO’LL LISTEN LOOK TO DEVELOP OUTSIDE THE SYSTEM CO-OPTED BY LARA/COIN USMC LARA/COIN AND USAF FAC

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War NAVY RFP FOR LARA/COIN, 1963 RELEASED TO 22 COMPANIES 10 COMPANIES RESPOND SPECIFICATION- 2 TURBOPROP ENGINES- TANDEM 2 SEAT- “SHORT WING”- OPERATE FROM:1) SHORT UNIMPROVED RUNWAYS2) CV AND LPH- AVIATION ARMAMENT AND 4 M60S- 2000 LBS CARGO OR 6 PARATROOPS- PROVISION FOR AMPHIBIOUS FLOATS1) Beech2) Douglas3) Convair *4) Goodyear5) Grumman6) Helio7) Hiller8) Lockheed9) Martin10) North American

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War 9 PROTOTYPES ORDERED, 1964- 7 FLIGHT TEST- 2 GROUND STRUCTURAL TEST FIRST FLIGHT - 16 JULY 1965 TESTS BY:- NORTH AMERICAN AVIATION, COLUMBUS DIV- NAVY PRELIMINARY EVALUATION (NPE)- ALL SERVICE EVALUATION GROUP (ASEG) 1 CRASHED IN TESTING, 1 UNSERVICEABLE 30’ WING, THEN 34’ WING, FINALLY 40’ WING 660 SHP T76 GARRETT T76 ENGINES FIRST OV-10A ORDER NOVEMBER 1966

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarNorth American Aviation Promotional Film Clip

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War 271 FOR U.S., 157 USAF AND 114 USMC FIRST DELIVERY 23 FEBRUARY 1968 LAST U.S. DELIVERY 15 APRIL 1969 LIKE A YOV-10A EXCEPT:40’ WING, 715 SHP ENGINE, ANGLED SPONSONSPerformanceMax Gross Weight: 14,444 lbsMax Cargo Weight: 3200 lbs*Normal Cruise:180 ktsVNE: 350 ktsManeuver Loading: 8 to -2 ½ GsMax Ceiling: 28,000’Cruise Fuel Consumption: 600 lbs/hr*With rear seat and associated flight controls removed

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarOV-10 DEPLOYMENT SITES23rd TASS USAF, NKP, ThailandVMO-6 USMC, Quang Tri, I Corps20th TASS USAF, DaNang, I CorpsVMO-2 USMC, DaNang, I Corps19th TASS USAF, Bien Hoa, III CorpsVAL-4 USN, Binh Thuy, IV Corps

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War 20mm Gun Pod ADSIDs 106mm Recoilless Rifle CBU-55USMC NOGSUSAF PAVE NAIL

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarMarine CorpsChuck BurinMike McCollum“Hostage Igor”VMO-2 Pilot1969-1970“Cowpoke 13”VMO-2 Aerial Observer1970-1971Jim Hodgson“Hostage Grump”VMO-2 Pilot1972-1974Ashby ShoopVMO-1, VMO-6 Pilot1974-1977

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarAir ForceNavyRick Atchison“Nail 229”23rd TASS WSO1971-1972Charlie SappVAL-4 Pilot1969Tom KempEd Sullivan“Nail 14”23rd TASS Pilot1971-1972VAL-4 Pilot1970 - 1971

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarUSMC BRONCOS IN VIETNAMViolence From the Skies

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarUSMC BRONCOS IN VIETNAMMARINE OBSERVATION SQUADRON (VMO)MissionsAirborne support for Marines on the ground thru:Visual ReconnaisanceInterim close fire supportArtillery spotting/adjustmentFAC(A), TAC(A)Convoy escortHelicopter escortCSARRadio relaySensor drops, etc.

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarUSMC BRONCOS IN VIETNAMTraining Squadrons2 Months, 80 Hours Flight TimeVMO-1MCAS New River, NCHML-267MCALF Camp Pendleton, CA

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarUSMC BRONCOS IN VIETNAMVMO-2 July 6, 1968 to March 24, 1971MCALF Marble Mountain (7/68 - 2/70)DaNang (2/70 – 3/71)VMO-6 November 1968 to October, 1969Quang Tri Air BaseH&MS-11 March 1971 to May 1971DaNang Air BaseNOGS Detachment June to August 1971With VAL-4 at Bien Thuy

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarUSMC BRONCOS IN VIETNAMWeapons carried for ground support: 4 M-60C Machine guns SUU-11 7.62 machine gun pod 2.75 Rockets – WP and HE 5 inch Zuni Rockets – WP and HE Mk 24 Flares GPU-2 20 mm gun pod CBU-55 Fuel Air Explosive (FAE) MA-36 ADSID

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarUSMC BRONCOS IN VIETNAMOPERATIONAL STATISTICS:VMO-2 - 33 months, 18 a/c, 6 a/c lost, 9 crew KIA17,215 Sorties, 38,218 HoursVMO-6 - 11 months, 4 to 18 a/c, 3 a/c lost, 2 crew KIA4,878 Sorties, 11,000 hoursH&MS-11 - 2 months, 4 a/c, 207 Sorties, 457 Hours,1 a/c lost, 2 crew KIANOGS Det. – 3 months, 2 a/c, xx Sorties, 200 Hours, no lossesTOTALS: 22,300 Sorties, 49,857 Hours 10 a/c lost 13 crew KIA

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarUSMC BRONCOS IN VIETNAMKeeping the planes Mission Ready24/7The Secret124 enlisted men working their buttsoff day and night

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarUSMC BRONCOS IN VIETNAMThe Marine AIR-GROUND TeamAIR – The Bronco (Pilot and AO)GROUND – Unit Commander

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War The AO was a critical element of MarineCorps OV-10 deployment. Aviation and ground trained officersteamed to effectively support ground units,both infantry and reconnaissance. Shared missions controlling aviation and combat supportelements such as artillery and naval gunfire. Brought a ground combat perspective to the team,kept pilots from making mistakes.

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarAnother day at the office

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War AOs in Vietnam were the result of long standing MarineCorps policy to combine aviators and ground officerstogether in an airplane to conduct observation. AOs were Ground officers primarily from artillery andinfantry specialties who went to a 2 month school to learnabout communication, map reading, controlling aircraft andartillery; all from the back seat of an OV-10. A new AO learned from experienced pilots and new pilotslearned from experienced AOs. Together the team was formidable.

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War1. Didn’t receive piloting training but would need to fly theairplane if the pilot was unable,2. Served 6-12 months with a VMOsquadron in Vietnam,3. Flew in OV-10s or other aircraft withother services including the US Army,Navy, Air Force, and Korean Marines,

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarNOGS – NIGHT OBSERVATION GUN SHIP USMC Commandant February 1970 Order: INCREASE NIGHT CAPABILITIES System designed with existing sensors and weapons 2 OV-10A modified, completed December 1970, NWC China Lake YOV-10D 90 Day Stateside evaluation, USMC Camp Pendleton, CA Vietnam Combat Assessment, June thru August 1971, located with VAL-4

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarNOGS Identify, Mark, Engage Target 20MM GUN TURRET LASER DESIGNATOR FORWARD LOOKINGINFRARED (FLIR) Sponsons removed, wing pylon stations for rockets or flares NOGS system adds 2300 pounds to OV-10A empty weight

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarNOGS – NIGHT OBSERVATION GUN SHIPNorth American Rockwell Promotional Film Clip

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarNOGS – NIGHT OBSERVATION GUN SHIPMarine Corps and Air Force Evaluations: Effective Under Powered Capable of transition to production with defectscorrected

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND COMBAT BRONCO/MISTY BRONCO 19TH TASS 20TH TASS 23D TASS

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War 157 DELIVERED; 64 LOST TRAINING 4409 CCTS, HURLBURT FIELD, FLORIDA FAC (U), PHAN RANG, SOUTH VIETNAM MISSION FAC CAS INTERDICTION

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War SEP-OCT 1968 19TH TASS 6 OV-10S MULTIPLE MISSIONS VR CONVOY ESCORT RADIO RELAY ARTILLERY ADJUSTMENT

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War EVALUATE OV-10 AS A LIGHT-STRIKE AIRCRAFT CAS 7.62MM M60 MACHINE GUNS WP ROCKETS HE ROCKETS FLARES

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War BIEN HOA, MR 3, AUG 1968-JAN 1972 FOLS—CU CHI, DI AN, LAI KHE, PHUC VINH, DAU TIENG,TAY NINH, QUON LOI SUPPORTED—1ST ID, 199TH LIB/25TH ID1ST AIR CAV, 5TH SFG INITIAL RUSTIC SUPPORT IN CAMBODIA RAAF, RNZAF LOSSES—16 A/C, 10 KIA

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War DANANG MR 1 JAN 1969-JAN 1973 FOLS—QUANG TRI, CHU LAI, PLEIKU SUPPORTED—AMERICAL DIV, 1/5 ID, 6 ARVN UNITS APRIL ‘72 INVASION BASE DEFENSE—SMALL BOMBS, HE ROCKETS, 7.62MM GUNS BAT 21 SAR MOH RECIPIENT RAAF, RNZAF LOSSES—22 A/C, 22 KIA, 3 POWS

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War NAKHON PHANOM RTAFB 1969-OCT 1975 FOL— U-TAPOA, UBONOUT COUNTRY INTERDICTION, HO CHI MINH TRAIL STEEL TIGER—NAPE PASS TO TCHEPONE BARREL ROLL—PLAIN DE JARS SPECIAL OPS CAMBODIA—ZIP GUNS, SPIKES, RUSTICS LAST MISSIONS—EAGLE PULL, MAYAGUEZ LOSSES—23 A/C, 6 KIA, 2 POWS

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarOV-10 PAVE NAIL COMBAT REQUIRED OPERATIONAL CAPABILITY 25-70“NIGHT VISUAL SYSTEM, SEARCH, ACQUIRE, TRACK AND DESIGNATE TGTS” INTEGRATED NIGHT VISION, LASER DESIGNATOR, AND TACTICAL LORAN D ARRIVED UBON JUL 71 FOR TNG AND COMBAT EVAL, PAIRED WITH 497TH TFS COMBAT READY AT NKP AUG 71 15 AIRCRAFT MODIFIED, DE-MODIFIED IN 1974

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarOV-10 PAVE NAIL MISSIONS & TACTICS ACQUIRE AND DESIGNATE FOR:LORAN DELIVERED LASER GUIDED BOMBSDIVE DELIVERED LASER GUIDED BOMBS ACQUIRE AND MARK TGTS FOR CONVENTIONAL ORLORAN DELIVERY MISSIONS:INTERDICTIONGUN KILLSEARCH AND RESCUECAS/ETICRECONNAISSANCE

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarPAVE NAIL

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarThe Black Ponies

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarThe Brown Water Navy

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarForming the Squadron Oct 1968 – 18 OV-10As transferred from USMC Nov ‘68 – Feb ‘69 – Pilots and MaintenancePersonnel trained Jan 3, 1969 – Light Attack Squadron FOURcommissioned Mar 14, 1969 – 14 A/C shipped to Vietnam 4 A/C remained VS-41 to train replacements. Mar 24, 1969 – 36 officer / 110 enlisted personneldeparted San Diego for Vietnam Apr 19, 1969 – Combat operations began

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarParrot’s BeakSihanouk TrailPlain of ReedsSaigonRung SatSpecial Zone Vung TauBinh ThuyU Minh ForestOperationSea FloatVAL-4 Area of OperationsThe Mekong Delta

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarMission Classic CAS of troops in contactInterdiction of enemy personnel & materialRules of Engagement Autonomous ops – no FAC requiredRockets, guns only – no bombsSupport forces within 1 KM of navigablewaterwayMission Structure 2-Plane Light Attack Fire Teams Front seat – Fly, shoot, in charge Back seat – Nav, Comm, situationalawarenessRandom scheduled patrols, day and night24/7 Scramble ready alertSingle aircraft Rung Sat patrol w/ AOCover SEAL / conventional troop insertions

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarWeapons Sponson-mounted M60sMk 4 20mm gun pod5-inch Zuni rockets2.75-inch rocketsSU-11/A MinigunSUU-11/A Gun podMk 4 Gun pod20 Zunis

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarThe Black Ponies’ Secret Weapon – The Troops

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam WarSummary Squadron lifespan: Jan 3, 1969 to Apr 10, 1972145 Officers / 530 Enlisted served22,000 combat sorties / 43,000 combat flight hoursLost 7 aircraft with 7 KIA / 9 WIASatisfied customers: Legions from all services andnationalities involved in fighting Communist forcesthroughout the Mekong Delta.

THE OV-10 BRONCO Designed for Counterinsurgency and the Vietnam War The OV-10 was built for theVietnam War.- L2VMA- LARA/COIN- Built between 1966 and 1969- Marine Corps, Air Force, and Navy employment It was universally viewed by crews asunderpowered with an uncomfortably hotcockpit. It was an effective aircraft in the missions itwas given.