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hioDepartmentof EducationStudent NameOHIO GRADUATION TESTSScienceSpring 2009This test was originally administered to students inMarch 2009. This publicly released material isappropriate for use by Ohio teachers ininstructional settings. This test is aligned with Ohio’sAcademic Content Standards. 2009 by Ohio Department of Education

The Ohio Department of Education does not discriminate on the basis of race, color,national origin, sex, religion, age, or disability in employment or the provision of services.

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ScienceSCIENCE TESTDirections: For multiple-choice questions, choose the correct answer and thenmark the corresponding circle in the Answer Document. If you change ananswer, be sure to erase the first mark completely.Short-answer questions are worth two points. Extended-response questions areworth four points. Point values are printed near each question in your TestBooklet. The amount of gridded space provided for your answer is the samefor all two- and four-point questions. Using the gridded space may or may notbe necessary to answer the question; however, your response should bewritten in the gridded space.Make sure the number of the question in this Test Booklet corresponds to thenumber on the Answer Document. Be sure to answer the question completelyand show all your work in the Answer Document.1.Strips of two different metals are placed in a solution of acid as shown in thepicture below.What indicates that ions are being formed?A. The solution becomes less acidic.B.The metal strips begin to swell up.C. An odor is emitted by the acid solution.D. An electrical current is present between the metal strips.2601; GS0000PSAXC1652D2Go to next page

Science2.Mosquitoes carry malaria and otherdiseases. In order to controlmosquito populations, a powerfulpesticide called DDT was used formany years. DDT entered lakes,ponds, and rivers and accumulatedin the tissues of fish. When birds,such as eagles, consumed the fish,they produced eggs with very thinshells. The thin-shelled eggs brokewhen the parents sat on them andthe populations of eagles and otherbirds suffered. The U.S. governmentbanned the use of DDT in 1972.3.A. the fatality rate caused by thepathogenB.a report on how the pathogen istransmitted from one organismto anotherC. pictures showing microscopicimages of the pathogen so theywill be familiar with itHow did the banning of DDT mostlikely affect the population of baldeagles in the United States?D. a description of the surfacereceptors found on thepathogen and the immuneresponseA. The eagle population rapidlydeclined after the banningof DDT.B.If you were working for the Centerfor Disease Control and discovereda new, highly dangerous pathogen,what information should bepresented to the public that mayprevent a widespread epidemic ofthe disease?2756; GS0000SKDXC0409BThe eagle population was notaffected by the banning of DDT.C. The eagle population slowlyincreased after the banningof DDT.D. The eagle population increasedand then rapidly decreasedafter the banning of DDT.4862; GS0000LSGXC9040C3Go to next page

Science4.Jackie used a portable electric drillto remove screws from a brokenwooden table. He noticed that thescrews holding the table togetherwere warm to the touch after beingremoved from the wood.5.What structure is absent in the cellsof fungi thereby preventing themfrom performing photosynthesis?A. ciliaB.nucleiWhat explains this phenomenon?C. chloroplastsA. Mechanical energy from thedrill was converted into thermalenergy due to friction.D. mitochondriaB.2496; GS0000LSAXR1453CElectrical energy from the drillwas converted into chemicalenergy due to resistance.6.C. Thermal energy from the drillwas converted into mechanicalenergy due to inertia.State two factors and explain howeach influences the weather inOhio.Respond in the space provided inyour Answer Document. (4 points)D. The process of removing thescrew concentrated the thermalenergy that was already presentin the wood.2388; GS0000ESBXC0041E4821; GS0000PSFXR0076A4Go to next page

ScienceOn the March 2009 Ohio Graduation Science Test, questions 7–12 arefield test questions that are not released.5

Science13. Rising ocean temperatures cancause corals to expel the symbioticalgae on which they depend forsurvival.Which human influence could beresponsible for an increase in thisphenomenon?A. shoreline erosionB.burning fossil fuelsC. solar power generationD. introduction of non-nativespecies2555; GS0000LSGXR1347B6Go to next page

Science14. A student records the position of a car every second for a period of time andplots the following displacement and time graph.Displacement (m)Displacement vs. TimeTime (s)Illustrated below is the change in position of a car every second. Whichobservation of an object moving from left to right did the student record?Position of a CarA.Position (m)Position of a CarB.Position (m)Position of a CarC.Position (m)Position of a CarD.Position (m)6749; GS0000PSDXC1828A7Go to next page

Science15. Scientists have hypothesized foryears that Earth’s continents onceformed a single landmass thatbroke apart and became thecontinents as we know them today.The model below shows thelandmasses (Gondwanaland) asthey started to break apart to formSouth America, Africa, Antarctica,India, and Australia.16. A student walks from inside an airconditioned building to standoutside on a sunny, sandy beach.The student says that her face andthe bottoms of her feet feel warm.Which statement best describes thethermal energy transfer takingplace?A. Thermal energy is transferred toher face by radiation, andthermal energy is transferred tothe bottoms of her feet byradiation.GondwanalandB.C. Thermal energy is transferred toher face by radiation, andthermal energy is transferred tothe bottoms of her feet byconduction.What evidence best supports themodel proposed above?A. Igneous rocks have been foundon all the continents.B.Thermal energy is transferred toher face by convection, andthermal energy is transferred tothe bottoms of her feet byradiation.D. Thermal energy is transferred toher face by conduction, andthermal energy is transferred tothe bottoms of her feet byconduction.Similar fossils have been foundin parts of Africa and SouthAmerica.2674; GS0000PSFXC1368CC. Australia has marsupial speciesthat are not found on othercontinents.D. Indications of sea levelchanges have been recordedon all the continents.2413; GS0000ESCXC0817B8Go to next page

ScienceUse the tables to answer question 17.Holocene1Pleistocene217. Which isotope from Table A is the only one with applications for dating Holocenematerials?A. carbon 14B.rubidium 87C. uranium 238D. potassium 402415; GS0000ESCXC1012A9Go to next page

Science18. Companies seeking new drugapproval are required to conductclinical trials involving humanvolunteers. During these trials,people with the disease areseparated into different groups.One group receives a placebo (aninert or harmless substance used incontrolled experiments). Each ofthe remaining groups receives adifferent dose of the drug (i.e.,Group A receives a 30 mg doseonce a day, Group B receives a50 mg dose once a day, etc.).19. Some coal-burning power plantsinstall “chemical scrubbers”. Thesescrubbers reduce the amount ofsulfur dioxide ( SO 2 ) that is releasedwhen coal is burned.How does installation of thesescrubbers benefit the environment?A. reduce the amount of acid rainB.reduce the amount of coalminedC. increase the amount ofatmospheric CO 2Describe two reasons for testing newdrugs at varying doses.D. increase the amount of groundlevel ozone4769; GS0000STBXA1952ARespond in the space provided inyour Answer Document. (2 points)2740; GS0000SKCXC1065S10Go to next page

Science20. Color blindness is a sex-linked traitthat is carried on theX chromosome. If a boy is borncolor-blind, what would have to betrue?A. His father had normal vision.B.His grandmother was colorblind.C. His mother carried at least onegene for color blindness.D. His grandfather passed on thecolor-blind trait to his father.2516; GS0000LSCXR0557C11Go to next page

Science21. On which map do the shaded land areas represent regions where theaverage annual temperature is greater than 18 C (64.4 F)?A.B.C.D.2390; GS0000ESBXC0758B12Go to next page

Science22. Solid copper wire is a goodconductor becauseA. copper contains no protons.B.electrons move easily within thewire.C. protons and electrons tend tocluster at opposite ends of it.D. copper contains the samenumber of protons andneutrons.2626; GS0000PSCXR0591B13Go to next page

ScienceUse the information and illustration to answer questions 23 and 24.Solar WarmingA group of students in Ohio conducted an investigation during the month ofJanuary to study the effects of solar warming. The students used a wooden boxpainted white. The box was mounted on a post in an open area and athermometer was fastened on each of the four sides. The box was oriented sothat each thermometer faced squarely in a different direction: north, south, eastor west. The temperature on each thermometer was recorded in degreesFahrenheit at 12:00 noon during five consecutive days of clear skies.The picture shows the apparatus used by the students.The table shows the data collected by the students.Effects of Solar Warming(Temperature in 3437East3232343235West3231333033252; GS0066PSXXX0000X14Go to next page

Science23. Based on the data, which statement best summarizes the effects of solarwarming in January?A. Solar warming at noon is greatest on south-facing surfaces.B.Solar warming is greatest in January when the weather is clear.C. Solar warming in Ohio is greatest in the northern part of the state.D. Solar warming increases from the west side of Ohio to the east side of Ohio.2940; GS0066SIAXC0454A24. When designing the investigation, one student suggested painting the woodenbox black. Predict how painting the box black would affect the temperaturereadings from the four thermometers. Explain your reasoning.Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)2938; GS0066PSGXC1022S15Go to next page

Science25. A student is studying several speciesthat belong to the plant kingdom.Which two are most closely related?26. All carts shown below are identical0.5 kilogram metal carts. Blocksplaced in the carts have a mass of1 kilogram each.A. Ficus benjamina and FicuslyrataB.Which cart arrangement has thegreatest amount of gravitationalpotential energy with the cart sittingat the top of the ramp as shown ineach diagram?Castilla elastica and FicuselasticaC. Bromus japonicus and IpomoeaviolaceaD. Fermaldia pandurata and FicuspandurataA.4868; GS0000LSEXR0840AB.C.D.4901; GS0000PSEXC9030B16Go to next page

Science27. An aquatic ecologist collects dataabout the water quality of an Ohiolake throughout the year. In thesummer, the ecologist shares datawith a public health official from anearby town.Which data would a public healthofficial use to determine whetherthe water was safe for swimming?A. the temperature of thesurface waterB.28. Scientists and engineers from TheSociety of Automotive Engineers(SAE) and National Transportationand Safety Board (NTSB) conductstudies and develop technicalguidelines for designers andmanufacturers of consumerproducts. Such guidelines havemade possible the development orimprovement of collision avoidancesystems, passenger and pedestriansafety systems, and saferautomotive power and fuel systems.the amount of dissolvedoxygen in the deep waterWhich statement accuratelydescribes a positive effect onscience and society from studiesand guidelines developed by theSAE and NTSB?C. the number of water lilies,N. odorata, growing in the lakeD. the concentration of E. colibacteria near the surface ofthe lakeA. SAE and NTSB guidelines arepermanent.5473; GS0000SKALR4029DB.SAE and NTSB help scientists andengineers decide how theproducts will be marketed.C. Scientific studies provide thedata SAE and NTSB use todevelop the guidelines fordesign standards that scientistsand engineers follow.D. SAE and NTSB studies andguidelines are used to protectthe trademarks, copyrights andpatents that scientists andengineers receive on theirinventions.4864; GS0000PSHXR9026C17Go to next page

Science29. Most bacteria reproduce asexually.Mammals reproduce sexually.Describe how these two methods ofreproduction differ with respect tothe genetic makeup of the offspringproduced.31. The following diagram is found in anevolutionary biology textbook.TimeRespond in the space provided inyour Answer Document. (2 points)2518; GS0000LSCXR0671S30. An oceanographer is traveling fromthe west toward the east on theAtlantic Ocean. She collects rocksamples from the seafloor every 5kilometers. The oceanographerstops when she determines that therock samples are gettingprogressively younger as she movestoward the east.This branching tree diagram is mostlikely used to represent the theorythat suggestsA. new species arise throughouttime following rounds of massextinction.What conclusion is best supportedby this data?B.A. She is traveling toward a midocean ridge.B.She is traveling toward a deepocean trench.all species share a commonancestor and that changeoccurs through time.C. speciation occurs very quicklywith long periods of no changein between.C. She is traveling away from anunderwater volcano.D. all species originated duringthe same period and somehave subsequently gone extinct.D. She is traveling away from a hotspot in the crust.4929; GS0000LSIXR0870B2473; GS0000ESEXC1530A18Go to next page

Science32. Light travels in air at approximately3.0 10 8 m/s. When it enters a glasswindow, this speed is reduced toabout 2.0 10 8 m/s. When the lightre-enters the air, what will the speedof light be?34. An astronomer investigating a stardetermines that the lightwavelengths she observes arelonger than those expected to beemitted by the star.What can be concluded about themotion