Understanding theANSI ISEA 105-2016American National Standard for Hand Protection
ANSI ISEA 105-2016AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDFOR HAND PROTECTIONINTRODUCTIONANSI/ISEA 105-2016 is the latest revision of a voluntary industry consensus standard thatwas first published in 1999 and revised in 2005 and then again in 2011. The documentclassifies a whole occupational glove or material used in the construction of a glove to helpbridge the gap in information and performance-based testing criteria. Such classificationscan assist employers and product users in the appropriate selection of gloves for protectionagainst specific workplace exposures. This document references the appropriate testmethods for specified criteria, and provides pass/fail criteria that allow users to interprettest results and determine if certain hand protection products meet their needs.As the market leader in hand protection, Ansell is significantly involved in developing andimproving test standards for protection apparel and is a member of the Hand ProtectionGroup of International Safety Equipment Association (ISEA). This group includes 16 otherglove and PPE related companies. This standard was approved using consensus proceduresprescribed by the American Nation Standards Institute. Every member has a chance tocomment, and negative comments must be resolved before standards are put forth. ANSIISEA 105 is primarily for North American markets but uses globally available test methods.
CLASSIFICATIONThis standard addresses the classification and testing of hand protectionfor specific performance properties related to chemical and industrialapplications. Hand protection includes gloves, mittens, partial gloves, orother items covering the hand or a portion of the hand that are intended toprovide protection against or resistance to a specific hazard.Hand protection classifications are subdivided into three main groups:1. Mechanical Protection (cut, abrasion, puncture)2. Chemical Protection3. Other (heat, flame, vibration protection, dexterity, impact protectionunder development)This standard provides performance ranges for many different propertiesbased on standardized test methods. Different levels of performanceare specified for each property with zero (0) representing the minimalprotection or none at all.The purpose of the 105 standard is to provide manufacturers witha mechanism to classify their products for specified areas of gloveperformance. The information from this testing and classification can beused to help users to select appropriate hand protection.2The purpose of the 105standard is to providemanufacturers with amechanism to classify theirproducts for specified areas ofglove performance.
MECHANICAL PROTECTION (CUT, ABRASION, PUNCTURE)CUTOne of the major changes in this fourth edition of ANSI/ISEA 105 surroundsthe determination of classification for cut resistance. The 2011 versionallowed the choice of two different test methods (ASTM F1790-97,F1790-05) and two different test machines, the CPPT and/or the TDM.To reduce variation for purposes of classifying a glove to this standard, asingle test method (ASTM F2992-15 for TDM) has been selected in an effortto provide consistent meaning of the ratings from the end-user perspective.In addition, the number of classification levels has been expanded toaddress the disparate gap among certain levels seen in earlier versions andto model the approach used in similar international standards. ISEA and ENcut levels will be determined with the same piece of test equipment – theTDM – though the methods prescribed in each case (ASTM F2992 vs. ISO13997) have slight differences.Relevance to the Market:The new TDM method shouldcorrelate with the previousCPPT method, but becauseof the inherent variability incut testing, gloves with cutresistance levels that arenear a transition value maysee a change.The biggest effect of thenew levels will be moresegmentation in the old ANSIcut 4 range. Gloves rated level4 in the old range can be ratedA4, A5 or A6 in the new range.The new high-end levels – A7,A8, A9 – will apply to somefood gloves but were createdto differentiate high-end cutresistant gloves.The new ANSI/ISEA levelsharmonize with new EN highcut levels up to level A6/F,but the ANSI/ISEA standarddoes a better job providingdifferentiation of high-endcut-resistant gloves above thatlevel, up to 6,000 grams.CURRENT: ISEA 105-2011NEW: ANSI/ISEA 2016EUROPE: EN388-2016ASTM F1790-2014 (CPPT)*ASTM F2992-15 (TDM)ISO 13997 (TDM)CPPT or TDMTDM ONLYTDM ONLYLEVELGRAMSLEVELGRAMSLEVELNEWTONS*1 200A1 200A22 500A2 500B53 1000A3 1000C10A4 1500D15A5 2200E22A6 3000F30A7 4000A8 5000A9 600045 1500 3500NOTE: 1 Newton is approximately equivalent to 102 grams* Note: 1 Newton is equal to 102 grams of force.This means the new ANSI cut level in North America willcorrelate to the EN388 cut level in Canada and Europe.3
ABRASIONThese ASTM test methods (D3389-10 and D3884-09) shall be followedusing H-18 abrasion wheels with a 500 gram load for levels 0 to 3 and a1000 gram load for levels 4 to 6. The test method has a 4-inch circular testspecimen mounted on a horizontal axis platform while being abraded tofailure under a specified vertical weight load (500 or 1000 grams) by thesliding rotation of two vertically oriented abrading wheels. The abradingwheels are comprised of vitrified clay and silicon carbide abrasiveparticles. The results, recorded in revolutions, are classified by ANSI/ISEA105 Hand Selection Criteria as follows:Taber AbrasionASTM D3389-10, ASTM D3884-09Weight (Grams)LevelRevolutions5000 1005001 1005002 5005003 100010004 300010005 1000010006 20000PUNCTUREThe standard puncture test remains the same, using the EN388 punctureprobe. An additional update is the inclusion of a needlestick puncturetest, recognizing that this is a common potential exposure for the medical,sanitation and recycling industries.As seen at right in the photo, the standard EN388 probe is very large.There is a segment of users who need protection from smaller hypodermicneedles, requiring a significantly different puncture device – very thin andvery sharp – and calling for using a new testing method and rating scale.The new method uses a 25-gauge needle as a probe, pictured at left.The normal industrial puncture test is done in accordance with clause6.4 of EN 388:2003 (updated in 2016). A circular test specimen cut fromthe glove palm is mounted in a holder and punctured with a stylus ofspecified sharpness attached to a tensile tester. The force required topuncture the specimen to failure is measured. Results are classified intofive performance levels; the higher the result, the better the performance.The average of 12 specimens (minimum) shall be used to determine theclassification level.See chart, over4
Puncture ResistanceHypodermic Needle PunctureEN388 Clause 6.4ASTM F2878 w/25 Gauge NeedleLEVELNEWTONSLEVELNEWTONS0 100 21 101 22 202 43 603 64 1004 85 1505 10Relevance to the Market:CHEMICAL PROTECTION (NO CHANGE)Permeation testing is done in accordance with ASTM Method F 739standards. A specimen is cut from the glove and clamped into a testcell as a barrier membrane (see illustration). The “exterior” side of thespecimen is exposed to a hazardous chemical. At timed intervals, theunexposed “interior” side of the test cell is checked for the presence of thepermeated chemical and the extent to which it may have permeated theglove material. A Gas Chromatograph with a Flame Ionization Detector isused. This standard allows a variety of options in analytical technique andcollection media. At Ansell, dry nitrogen is the most common medium andgas chromatography with FID detection is the most common analyticaltechnique. An average of three specimens shall be used to report the data.Chemical Permeation ResistanceASTM F739-12Standard Breakthrough TimeLevel(minutes)0 101 102 303 604 1205 2406 480Ansell tests to ASTM F73912 for chemical permeation,but finds that it adds valueto rate its gloves based onchemical breakthrough times,chemical permeation rates,and chemical degradation.The 8th edition of Ansell’sChemical Permeation Guide(available on its website)provides data for glovestested against differentchemicals. Breakthroughtimes are listed, and ratesand degradation valuescategorized from Excellentto Very Good, Good, Fairor Poor. (Some gloves are“Not rated.”) Complexmeasurements are colorcoded to simplify theselection of the best glovesfor a specific chemical:Green for excellent-good,Yellow for acceptable (withcaution advised), or Red forpoor-not recommended.5
OTHER PROTECTION(HEAT, FLAME, VIBRATION, DEXTERITY AND IMPACT)Relevance to the Market:In North America, Ansell testsits gloves to the ASTM D6413vertical flame test, with 3glove exposures: fingers inflame, edge of palm in flameand cuff/over-edge in flames,considered by Ansell to bemore realistic than the foldededge in flame of ASTM F1358).Gloves are rated as passingon flame resistance if theyhave less than 2 seconds afterflame, and failing if the afterflame is longer. As a globalcompany, Ansell flame- andheat-resistant gloves aretested against the EN407standard in Europe and Brazil,and the ratings can providemore information.FLAME AND HEAT RESISTANCE [no change]Flame ResistanceWhen tested in accordance with ASTM F1358-16, the glove material’signition resistance and burning behavior shall be classified against thelevels listed in the table below, using the ignition time and burn time. Inorder to be classified at a specific level, the glove material shall meet eachof the criteria at that specific level. The average of 3 specimens (minimum)shall be used to determine the classification level.Heat Degradation ResistanceWhen tested in accordance with ISO 17493:2000, the glove material’s heatdegradation resistance shall be classified against the levels listed in thetable below. The classification of the glove shall be at the temperaturein which there is no evidence of charring, ignition, melting, dripping, andseparation, and there is no shrinkage greater than 5%. Convective heatresistance testing shall be performed on whole gloves. The average of3 specimens (minimum) shall be used to determine the classification level.EN407 ratings Levels 1 to 4, with 4being the bestConductive Heat ResistanceWhen tested in accordance with ASTM F1060-08, the glove’s conductiveheat resistance shall be classified against the levels listed in the tablebelow. Classification of glove performance shall be based on the contact(surface) temperature at which both the time-to-second degree burnis equal to or greater than 15 seconds, and the alarm time is greaterthan 4 seconds. The average of 5 specimens (minimum) shall be used todetermine the classification level.FlameFlameResistanceResistanceASTM F1358-16ASTM F1358-08LevelLevel00112233446FlameFlame )exposure(sAfter-FlameAfter-Flametime(s)exposure (s)time (s)3 23 23 23 212 212 212 212 2No ignition in either 3- orNo ignitionin eitherperiod3- or12-secondexposure12-second exposure periodHeat DegradationDegradationHeatResistanceResistanceISO 17493:2000ISO 17493:200TemperatureLevel TemperatureCelsiusLevel0011223344Celsius 100 ctiveResistanceResistanceASTM 1060-08ASTM F1060-08AResistance to FlammabilityBurning behavior afterflame time and after glowtime (whole glove)BContact Heat Resistance(10 C increase) Contacttemperature and Thresholdtime (glove palm)CConvective Heat Resistance(24 C increase) Heattransfer index (glove palm& back)DRadiant Heat Resistance(24 C increase) Heattransfer (back of glove)EResistance to SmallSplashes of Molten Metal(40 C increase) Numberof droplets (glove palm &back)FResistance to LargeQuantities of Molten Metal(damage to a simulatedPVC skin) Mass of molteniron (glove 012345Celsius 80 808080140140200200260260320320
Vibration ReductionWhen tested in accordance with ANSI S2.73-2002 (ISO 10819), the glove’svibration reduction shall be classified as “pass/fail.” According to thisstandard, a glove shall only be considered an “anti-vibration glove” if itfulfills both of the following criteria: TRM 1.0 and TRH 0.6NOTE: For purposes of this standard, only full fingered gloves shall be classified as“anti-vibration” gloves.Relevance to the Market:A new ISEA working grouphas been established tore-evaluate and refine thisstandard, but these actionstypically take 2 years or moreto be determined and enacted.Ansell is participating in thiseffort.DexterityWhen tested in accordance with clause 6.2 of EN 420:2009, the dexterityshall be classified against the levels in the table below, using the diameterof the smallest stainless steel pin that can be picked up. The average of 4pairs of gloves shall be used to report the classification level.EN 420 Dexterity (Smallest pin picked up determines rating)111 mm diameter29.5 mm38 mm46.5 mm55 mmImpact ResistanceCurrently, there is no standard in North America addressing glove impact.An ISEA Impact Dorsal Committee has been established to implementa back of the hand impact standard for gloves. The test method will bevery similar to the new EN388 impact method, but the plan is to establishrates for more areas of the glove: fingers, thumb, knuckle, and back ofhand/wrist bumpers. The rating system will have levels to differentiateprotection. The EN388 impact standard is essentially pass/fail and onlyconcerned with the knuckle area.Relevance to the Market:This is a new standard underdevelopment and so may takeat least a year to be put intoplace. Ansell, along with othermanufacturers, is participatingin establishing this standard.7
GLOSSARYGeneral TermsResistance (to a stressor): property of a glove that permits it to withstandchange when stressed.Protection (from a stressor): property that prevents or reduces deleteriouseffects on the wearer of a glove when stressed.Degradation: reduction in one or more physical properties of