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8VFR AERONAUTICAL CHART SYMBOLSAERONAUTICAL INFORMATIONAIRPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AIRSPACE INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NAVIGATIONAL AND PROCEDURAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHART LIMITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1011121618TOPOGRAPHIC INFORMATIONCULTURERAILROADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ROADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .POPULATED PLACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BOUNDARIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MISCELLANEOUS CULTURAL FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1919202021HYDROGRAPHYSHORELINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LAKES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RESERVOIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .STREAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MISCELLANEOUS HYDROGRAPHIC FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2222222323RELIEFCONTOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ELEVATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .UNRELIABLE RELIEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SHADED RELIEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AREA RELIEF FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MISCELLANEOUS RELIEF FEATURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262727272727

9HELICOPTER ROUTE CHARTSAIRPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AIRSPACE INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NAVIGATIONAL AND PROCEDURAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .HYDROGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELIEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28282931323232VFR FLYWAY PLANNING CHARTSAIRPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AIRSPACE INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NAVIGATIONAL AND PROCEDURAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .HYDROGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELIEF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33333335363636GENERAL INFORMATIONSymbols shown are for World Aeronautical Charts (WACs), Sectional Aeronautical Charts (Sectionals), Terminal AreaCharts (TACs), VFR Flyway Planning Charts and Helicopter Route Charts. When a symbol is different on any VFRchart series, it will be annotated as such (e.g. WAC or Not shown on WAC).

VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Aeronautical InformationAIRPORTSAIRPORTSLANDPLANE: CIVILAirports having control towers (CT) areshown in blue, all others are shown inmagenta.All recognizable runways, including somewhich may be closed,are shown for visualidentification purposes.LANDPLANE:EMERGENCYNo facilitiesorComplete information is not available.Add appropriate noteas required:“(CLOSED)”Refueling and repairfacilities for normaltraffic.Runway patterns willbe depicted at airports with at least onehard surface runway1500 or greater inlength.SEAPLANE:EMERGENCYNo facilities or complete information isnot available.HELIPORT(Selected)SEAPLANE: CIVILAERONAUTICALINFORMATIONULTRALIGHT FLIGHTPARK(Selected)AIRPORT DATAGROUPING(Pvt) - Non-public usehaving emergency orlandmark fueling and repairfacilities not indicated.10

11VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Aeronautical InformationRADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATIONRADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATIONVHFOMNI-DIRECTIONALRADIO (VOR) RANGEILS COMPONENTSShown when component of airway system or used in thedescription of Class Bairspace.BROADCASTSTATIONS (BS)On request by theproper authority orwhen a VFR Checkpoint.VORFLIGHT SERVICESTATION (FSS)VORTAC{When an NDBNAVAID shares thesame name andMorse Code astheVOR NAVAID thefrequency can becolocated inside thesame box to B)NDB-DMEREMOTECOMMUNICATIONSOUTLET (RCO)

VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Aeronautical InformationRADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATIONAIR FORCE STATION(AFS)AIRSPACE INFORMATIONCLASS C AIRSPACEAppropriate notes asrequired may beshown.(Mode C seeFAR 91.215 /AIM)LONG RANGERADAR STATION(LRRS)OFF AIRPORTAWOS/ASOSAIRSPACE INFORMATIONCLASS B AIRSPACECLASS D AIRSPACEOnly the airspaceeffective below18,000 feet MSL areshown.(Mode C seeFAR 91.215 /AIM)All mileagesare nautical (NM).All radialsare magnetic.LAS 002Appropriate notes asrequired may beshown.12

13VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Aeronautical InformationAIRSPACE INFORMATIONCLASS E AIRSPACECANADIAN AIRSPACEThe limits of Class Eairspace shall beshown by narrowvignettes or by thedashed magentasymbol. Individualunits of designatedairspace are not necessarily shown;instead, the aggregate lateral and vertical limits shall bedefined by the following:Individual units ofdesignated Canadianairspace are not necessarily shown;instead, the aggregate lateral and vertical limits shall beportrayed as closelyas possible to thecomparable U.S. airspace.Appropriate notes asrequired may beshown.Airspace beginning atthe surface (sfc) designated around airports .Airspace beginning at700 feet AGL .AIRSPACE INFORMATION’Airspace beginning at1200 feet AGL orgreater that abutsuncontrolled airspace (Class G) .Differentiates floorsof airspace greaterthan 700 feet abovethe surface.When the ceiling isless than 18,000 feetMSL, the value, prefixed by the word"ceiling,” shall beshown along the limits.OFFSHORECONTROL AREASAIRSPACE OUTSIDEOF U.S.Other than CanadaAppropriate notes asrequired may beshown.FLIGHTINFORMATIONREGIONS (FIR)and /or (CTA)OCEANICCONTROL AREAS(OCA)

VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Aeronautical InformationAIRSPACE INFORMATIONLOW ALTITUDEAIRWAYSVOR and LF / MF(CLASS E AIRSPACE)Low altitude FederalAirways are indicatedby centerline.Only the controlledairspace effectivebelow 18,000 feetMSL is shown.AIRSPACE INFORMATIONSPECIAL USEAIRSPACEOnly the airspaceeffective below18,000 feet MSL areshown.The type of area shallbe spelled out in largeareas if space permits.MISCELLANEOUSAIR ROUTESMILITARY TRAININGROUTES (MTR)SPECIAL MILITARYACTIVITY ROUTES(SMAR)Boxed notes (as intext) shown adjacentto route.14

15VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Aeronautical InformationAIRSPACE INFORMATIONSPECIAL AIRTRAFFIC RULES /AIRPORT PATTERNS(FAR 93)Appropriate boxednote as requiredshown adjacent toarea.SPACEOPERATIONSAREA(FAR 91.143)AIRSPACE INFORMATIONSPECIAL AIRSPACEAREASSPECIAL FEDERALAVIATIONREGULATIONS(SFAR) AREASAppropriate notes asrequired may beshown.Note. Delimiting linenot shown when itcoincides with International Boundary,projection lines orother linear features.FLIGHT RESTRICTEDZONE RELATING TONATIONAL SECURITYExample:Washington DCMODE C(FAR 91.215)Appropriate notes asrequired may beshown.Appropriate notes asrequired may beshown.MISCELLANEOUSAIRSPACE AREASParachute JumpingArea with FrequencyGliderOperating AreaUltralightActivityHang GliderActivityAIR DEFENSEIDENTIFICATIONZONE (ADIZ)Note. Delimiting linenot shown when itcoincides with International Boundary,projection lines orother linear features.TEMPORARY FLIGHTRESTRICTION (TFR)RELATING TONATIONAL SECURITYSPECIALCONSERVATIONAREASNational Park,Wildlife Refuge,Primitive andWilderness Areas,etc.Example:P-40/R-4009Appropriate notes asrequired may beshown.CAUTIONP-40 AND R-4009 EXPANDED BYTEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTION.CONTACT AFSS FOR LATEST STATUSAND NOTAMS

VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Aeronautical InformationAIRSPACE INFORMATIONNATIONALSECURITY AREA16AIRSPACE INFORMATIONIFR ROUTESAppropriate notes asrequired may beshown.ArrivalAppropriate notes asrequired may beshown.DepartureTRANSITION ROUTESHIGH ENERGYRADIATIONAREASAppropriate notes asrequired may beshown.Appropriate notes asrequired may beshown.VFR TRANSITION ROUTEATC CLEARANCE REQUIREDSEE SHOWBOAT GRAPHICON SIDE PANELUni-directionalBi-directionalNAVIGATIONAL AND PROCEDURAL INFORMATIONISOGONIC LINE &VALUEIsogonic lines andvalues shall be basedon the five year epochmagnetic variationmodel.TERMINAL RADARSERVICE AREA(TRSA)Appropriate notes asrequired may beshown.LOCAL MAGNETICNOTESUnreliabilityNotesCOMPASS ROSETTEShown only in areasvoid of VOR roses.Compass rosette willbe based on the fiveyear epoch magneticvariation model.

17VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Aeronautical InformationNAVIGATIONAL AND PROCEDURAL INFORMATIONINTERSECTIONSNAVIGATIONAL AND PROCEDURAL INFORMATIONMARINE LIGHTSNamed intersectionsused as reportingpoints. Arrows aredirected toward facilities which establishintersection.With Characteristicsof LightAERONAUTICALLIGHTSAERONAUTICALLIGHTSVISUAL GROUNDSIGNSShore andLandmarkersVFR CHECKPOINTSSite #VFR WAYPOINTSStand-AloneCollocated withVFR Checkpoint

VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Aeronautical InformationNAVIGATIONAL AND PROCEDURAL INFORMATIONOBSTRUCTIONCHART LIMITSOUTLINE ONSECTIONAL OFTERMINAL SITYOBSTRUCTIONLIGHTSHigh-intensity lightsmay operate parttime.WINDMILL FARMSWhen highest windmill is unverified, UCwill be shown afterMSL value.MAXIMUMELEVATIONFIGURE (MEF)(see page 2 for explanation).WARNING ANDCAUTION NOTESUsed when specificarea is not demarcated.’’OUTLINE ONSECTIONAL OFINSET CHART18

19VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Topographic InformationCULTURERAILROADSAll gaugesCULTURERAILROAD SIDINGSAND SHORT SPURSSingle TrackTOPOGRAPHICINFORMATIONROADSDouble TrackDual-LaneDivided HighwayCategory 1More ThanTwo TracksPrimaryCategory 2ElectricRAILROADS INJUXTAPOSITIONSecondaryCategory 2TRAILSCategory 3RAILROADNONOPERATING,ABANDONED,DESTROYEDOR UNDERCONSTRUCTIONProvides symbolization for dismantledrailroad when combined with label "dismantled railroad."ROAD MARKERSInterstate RouteNo.RAILROAD YARDSLimiting Track ToScaleU.S. Route No.Air MarkedIdentification LabelROAD NAMESLocation OnlyRAILROADSTATIONSROADS UNDERCONSTRUCTIONFeatures Related toRailroads and Roads

VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Topographic InformationCULTUREBRIDGESAND VIADUCTSCULTUREFERRIES, FERRYSLIPS AND FORDSRailroadRoadOVERPASSES ANDUNDERPASSESCAUSEWAYSTUNNELS-ROADAND LATEDPLACESLarge CitiesCategory 1Cities andLarge TownsCategory 2State orProvinceConvention orMandate LinePOPULATEDPLACESTowns and VillagesCategory 3Date Line20

21VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Topographic InformationCULTURECULTURETIME ZONESSMALL LOCKSMINES ORQUARRIESWEIRS ANDJETTIESShaft Minesor QuarriesPOWERTRANSMISSION &TELECOMMUNICATION M CARRYINGROADPASSABLE LOCKSPIERS, WHARFS,QUAYS, LSOther Than Water

VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Topographic InformationCULTURERACE TRACKSHYDROGRAPHYSHORELINESDefiniteLOOKOUT TOWERSAir markedidentificationFluctuating618 (Elevation Base of Tower)LANDMARK AREASUnsurveyedIndefiniteTANKSMan-madeLAKESLabel as requiredCOAST GUARDSTATIONPerennialWhen too numerousto show individuallakes, show representative pattern anddescriptive note.Non-PerennialAERIALCABLEWAYS,CONVEYORS, ETC.(dry, intermittent, etc.)Illustration includessmall perennial lakeRESERVOIRSNatural ShorelinesHYDROGRAPHYOPEN WATERMan-madeShorelinesLabel when necessary for clarityToo small to show toscaleINLAND WATERUnder Construction22

23VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Topographic ET SAND AREASWithin and adjacentto desert areasAQUEDUCTSNon-PerennialFanned OutAlluvial fanAbandoned uspended S HYDROGRAPHICFEATURESwith undefined limitsKanatswith maximum banklimits, prominent andconstantSand Deposits Inand AlongRiverbedsUnderground aqueduct with air vents

VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Topographic InformationHYDROGRAPHYHYDROGRAPHYFLUMES,PENSTOCKS ANDSIMILAR FEATURESTo ScaleElevatedUndergroundFALLSAbandoned orUnderConstructionAbandonedto ScaleSMALL CANALSAND DRAINAGE on-PerennialRAPIDSDouble-LineAbandonedor AncientNumerousSingle-LineRepresentative pattern and/or descriptive note.CANALSNumerous24

25VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Topographic InformationHYDROGRAPHYHYDROGRAPHYCOASTAL HYDROGRAPHIC FEATURESSALT EVAPORATORSAND SALT PANSMAN EXPLOITEDLAND SUBJECT TOINUNDATIONSWAMPS, MARSHESAND BOGSSPRINGS, WELLSAND WATERHOLESHUMMOCKS ANDRIDGESGLACIERSMANGROVE ANDNIPAGLACIAL MORAINESICE CLIFFSPEAT BOGSpeat bogTUNDRACRANBERRY BOGSRICE PADDIESExtensive areas indicated by label only.SNOWFIELDS, ICEFIELDS AND ICECAPSICE PEAKSFORESHORE FLATSTidal flats exposed atlow tide.

VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS - Topographic RSBare or AwashBasicWRECKSExposedREEFS-ROCKYOR CORALApproximat