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Monitoring & Evaluation PlanTransboundary Agro-Ecosystem ManagementProject in the Kagera Basin : Rwanda, Burundi,Uganda and TanzaniaPrepared by Janie Rioux, Natural Resources/M&E ConsultantFinal Version Technically Cleared by the RPC and the LTUDecember 2011

Table of Contents1. M&E PLAN . 3PROJECT OVERVIEW . 3PURPOSE .62.M&E OF PROJECT PERFORMANCE . 8PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION APPROACH .8INDICATORS .10REPORTING .113.M&E OF PROJECT IMPACT . 13BASELINE DATA AND METHODS .13IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHODS .15SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS.174.CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS . 17ANNEX 1: REVIEW OF TARGET INDICATORS BY PROJECT COMPONENTS .19ANNEX 2: M&E MATRIX .26ANNEX 3 : TARGET INDICATORS FOR MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF PROJECT PERFORMANCE .41ANNEX 4 : IMPACT ASSESSMENTS AND THEMATIC STUDIES .44ANNEX 5 : CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CATCHMENT AND SLM ACTION PLAN- REPORT TEMPLATE .46ANNEX 6: M&E REPORTING TEMPLATES .492

1. M&E PLANThe M&E plan for the Kagera Transboundary Agroecosystem Management Project (KAGERATAMP) has been developed by the consultant in close collaboration with the Regional ProjectCoordinator (RPC) and the four National Project Managers (NPMs) during collaborative andparticipatory work sessions in Kigali (RPC and NPMs of Rwanda and Burundi), and in Bukoba(NPMs of Tanzania and Uganda) during September 2011. Guidance and technical commentswere provided by the Lead Technical Officer and budget holder of the Kagera TAMP at NRL,and will be provided if necessary by the GEF unit in TCI.The M&E plan includes two components addressing the target indicators in the project logframe:- M&E of Project PerformanceMonitoring focuses on the management and supervision of project activities, seeking toimprove efficiency and overall effectiveness of project implementation. It is a continuousprocess to collect information on actual implementation of project activities compared tothose scheduled in the annual work plans, including the delivery of quality outputs in atimely manner, to identify problems and constraints (technical, human resource, andfinancial), to make clear recommendations for corrective actions, and identify lessonslearned and best practices for scaling up, etc. Performance evaluation will assess theproject’s success in achieving its objectives. The project will be monitored closely by FAO(LTU and GEF Unit) and by the Project Steering Committees through semi-annual reports,quarterly implementation reviews, technical reports, and regular technical supervisionmissions fielded as required to enhance success.- M&E of project impactEvaluation of the project’s success in achieving its outcomes will be monitored continuouslythroughout the project. The key indicators can be found in the logical framework. Theindicators have been further reviewed/refined during the development of this M&E Plan, andtools and methods and indicators for measuring impact have been be determined andagreed to ensure that a standardized framework is shared by the four participatingcountries.PROJECT OVERVIEWThe project’s long term environmental and development goal is to support the adoption ofintegrated land resources management in the Kagera Basin to generate local, national andglobal environmental and socio-economic benefits including : restoration of degradedlands, carbon sequestration, climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation, improvedagricultural production, and thereby, protection of international waters and improved foodsecurity and rural livelihoods.The project aims to reach this goal through four main components:1. Transboundary coordination and information sharing to promoteproductive agro-ecosystems and restoration of degraded lands.3sustainable,

2. Enabling policy, planning and legislative conditions to support and facilitate thesustainable management of agro-ecosystems and the restoration of degraded land.3. Capacity and knowledge development at all levels to promotesustainable management of land and agro-ecosystems in the basin.and support4. Implementation of improved land and agro-ecosystem management practicesbenefiting land users.The transboundary issues on which the project focus are :1. Control of soil erosion and sedimentation2. Water management through rainwater harvesting and soil moisture management3. Reduced pressures on wetlands and fragile lands4. Control of bush fires and reduction of biomass burning and as a result reducedPhosphorus deposition in Lake Victoria5. Conservation of agro-biodiversity6. Management of cross-border livestock movements and plant and animal diseases7. Land use change and impacts on resources (including policy)Transboundary (TB) issues are being addressed with stakeholders in the four countries andthrough collaboration with large regional programs (NBI, LVEMP, VI-agroforestry,etc.). TheKagera TAMP will not specifically address the following TB issues that were identified duringproject development, notably: control of water hyacinth will be addressed by LVEMP-II ;wildlife management and control through protected areas intervention ; and effects of waterquality on health by health and water sectors. Links with the wider TerrAfrica/SIPprogramme will allow to share lessons learned.The project participants and partners are located at different levels : local, national, regionaland global.Table 1 : Project participants and partners at all rmers mainly subsistence farmers, but also intensive perennial bananacoffee based farmersPastoralists/HerdersHouseholds practicing a combination of farming or herding with fishing orforestry activitiesWomen and vulnerable groupsFarmers groups and associationsLocal level leaders and decision makersDistrict authorities and government bodiesNational and international NGOsResearchers from national institutionsThe private sectorThe donor community and related projectsFAO country offices4

Regional-Global-Nile Basin Initiative (NBI)o Nile Equatorial Lakes Subsidiary Action Programme (NELSAP)o Kagera Transboundary Integrated water resources managementproject (TIWRMP)Lake Victoria Environmental Management Programme (LVEMP-II)Other regional programmes such as VI-Agroforestry (called VI-Life inRwanda), Africa 2000, IFDC, UNECA, ICRAF, CIAT etc.FAO (Land and Water Division-NRL, FAO-GEF Unit, Technical CooperationDepartment -TCI)*GEF (Global Environmental Facility)FAO Country offices are directly involved in and provide support for project implementation(workshops, LOAs, travel, budget allocations, etc.) Information is shared with FAO Subregional Offices in Addis Ababa (responsible for Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda) and Harare(responsible for Tanzania) through FPMIS (reports, delivery, etc), website and communicationswith the regional land and water officers.Kagera TAMP is funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) under its LandDegradation focal area and Strategic Program (SP) for GEF-4. In line with SP1- SupportingSustainable Agriculture and Rangeland Management, and SP3- Investing in New andInnovative Approaches for Sustainable Land Management the project focus is on restorationof the health and functioning of the different agro-ecosystems in the Kagera basin throughpromoting SLM at a catchment/community territory and wider transboundary levels. Landdegradation and SLM will be assessed and mapped across the Kagera basin to identify andtarget measures to address soil erosion, loss of fertility, reduce runoff and sedimentation,increase productivity of crop and grazing lands and improve forest/energy management, aswell as to improve well-being and livelihoods of land users.Consistent with Strategic Objective-1 (SO-1) to develop an enabling environment for SLMthe project is working with communities and districts to demonstrate successful SLMpractices for crop, grazing and forest lands that can be integrated into relevant policies andstrategies. The planning and tenure situation as well as opportunities to incentivate SLMthrough PES are being reviewed for carbon sequestration and water supply and plans will bedeveloped. Capacity development on SLM is being provided i) to farmers through setting upFFS in the selected catchments and developing and implementing SLM action plans forcommunity territories; and ii) to district and national institutions to develop cross-sectoralinterventions and apply an integrated ecosystem approach and mainstream SLM in districtplans and budgets and national programmes. Agrobiodiversity management and climatechange adaptation and mitigation are being integrated into the work at farm and catchmentlevels.Consistent with SO-2 on demonstrating and up-scaling successful, innovative and costeffective SLM practices and investments the project is assessing and documenting SLM bestpractices in the basin using rigorous technical methods to generate knowledge on costbenefits and impacts. Diverse types of incentive systems are being identified and it is5

expected to promote SLM adoption through piloting PES for water, biodiversity and carbonsequestration in suitable (demand-driven) identified scenarios. Links between security oftenure and SLM are being identified and will be considered in a watershed/landscapeapproach. The impacts of SLM interventions will be monitored to assess costs and benefitsin terms of reducing degradation and deforestation, enhancing productivity, increasingresilience to and mitigating climate change and generation of livelihood benefits for landusers. Moreover, SLM techniques will be evaluated for their carbon sequestration capacity insoils and biomass and scaled up through collaboration with Vi-agroforestry and others.Reduction in erosion and sedimentation will be monitored in selected catchments. Capacitybuilding is being promoted through the farmer field school approach for adaptivemanagement of SLM practices and through community land use planning.The GEF has prepared a land degradation tracking tool for the GEF-5 projects, which can beused as guidance (http://www.thegef.org/gef/node/4403).PURPOSEThe monitoring and evaluation plan for the Kagera TAMP will serve two functions: first,periodic assessment of project implementation and performance of activities (M&E of ProjectPerformance), and second, evaluation of their results in terms of relevance, effectivenessand impact in promoting the adoption of sustainable land and agro-ecosystem management(SLaM) (M&E of Project Impact). The M&E system of the project will provide answers on theprogress and impact made by the RPC, the NPMs and their partners in achieving theproject’s outputs and outcomes.Project Performance : Performance evaluation will assess the project’s success inachieving the outputs with the inputs provided and activities conducted. The project will bemonitored closely by FAO (LTU and FAO-GEF Unit), and by the Project Steering Committeethrough semi-annual reports, annual reports, and technical reports. Moreover, regulartechnical supervision missions and Back to Office Reports will be provided as required toenhance success, and well as guidance notes and feedbacks on reports.Project Impact : Evaluation of the project’s success in achieving its outcomesmonitored continuously throughout the project. The key indicators found in theframework, and in the revised M&E matrix will guide the evaluation of the projectand impacts. To do so, reliable baseline data will be collected at start of theactivities, and impact data will be collected when appropriate during theimplementation.6will belogicalresultsprojectproject

ImpactMonitoring Project Performance(Assess how are inputs are used toproduce outputs)OutcomesOutputsOutputsMonitoring Project ImpactActivities(Assess whether outputs produce theexpected results)InputsDiagram 1 : M&E of project performance and project impactBoth project performance and impact M&E