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630-631-0625co10/11/024:33 PMPage 630Page 1 of 3IndustrialRevolution, 1700 – 1900TheConnect History and GeographyDuring the 1800s, machines rapidly replaced hand labor as theprincipal means of producing goods. This era of factory growth isknown as the Industrial Revolution. The map at the right showsindustrialized areas in Europe as of 1870. Use the map to answerthe questions below.1. What is the most industrialized country?2. What other European countries were industrializing in the 1800s?3. What were the key British industrial centers at the time?4. What geographic factors might have encouraged thedevelopment of industry in certain places?For more information about theIndustrial Revolution . . .CLASSZONE.COMLocomotives began tocrisscross the eastern UnitedStates in the 1840s. At thattime, train tracks started toconnect some Americancities. Railroads enabled rawmaterials and finished goodsto move back and forthbetween mines, factories,cities, and ports.As industrialization swept acrossthe countries of Western Europein the 19th century, workersbegan to organize. Here workersin Germany meet before a strikein order to plan their strategy.1701Jethro Tullinvents seed drill.6301765 JamesWatt buildssteam engine.

630-631-0625co10/11/024:33 PMPage 631Page 2 of 3Industry in Europe, 187010 W20 E0 NSWEDENSeSCOTLANDaATLANTICOCEAN10 ENORWAYicGlasgowU N ITEDK IN G D O MIRELANDBaNo r t hS e BrusselsBELGIUM50 WRUSSIAFrankfurtLUX.Industrialization 1870ParisMajor industrial cityMajor railroadsconstructed by 1870AUSTRIOHUNGARIANEMPIREIndustryCoal miningSWITZERLANDIron workingFRANCETextile industry00125125Milan250 MilesOTTOMANEMPIRE250 KilometersRobinson 0 NSPAINPORTUGALraneanMedi t e r10 WSea0 17931807 Robert1825 FirstEli WhitneyFulton launches railroad lineinvents cotton gin. first steamboat. built in England.1848 Marx and1875 BritishEngels publishunions winCommunist Manifesto. right to strike.acticSea

632-0625p10/11/024:33 PMPage 632Page 3 of 3Interact with HistoryYou are a 15-year-old living in England wherethe Industrial Revolution has spurred thegrowth of thousands of factories. Cheap labor isin great demand. Like millions of other teenagers,you do not go to school. Instead you work in afactory six days a week, 14 hours a day. The smallpay you receive is needed to help support yourfamily. You trudge to work before dawn every dayand work until after sundown. The dangerousmachines injure your fellow workers. Minding themachines is exhausting, dirty, and dangerous.Inside the factory the air is foul, and it is so darkit is hard to see.What wouldyou do to changeyour situation?Children had to workaround dangerousmachinery in which asmall hand could easilybe caught and injured.Adult overseers sometimeswhipped exhausted children inorder to keep them awakeduring their long, 14-hour days.EXAMININGtheISSUES What factory conditions concern youthe most? Would you attempt to change conditionsin the factory? Would you join a union, go to school, orrun away?Children were expected tocarry heavy loads as partof their job in the factory.In small groups, discuss these questions; thenshare your conclusions with your class. In yourdiscussions, think about how children live in preindustrial and industrial societies all over theworld.As you read about the changes caused byindustrialization, note how reform movementseventually improve conditions for all laborers,including children.632

633-637-0625s110/11/0214:34 PMPage 633Page 1 of 5TERMS & NAMESThe Beginningsof IndustrializationMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe Industrial Revolution started inEngland and soon spread elsewhere.The changes that began in Britainpaved the way for modern industrialsocieties. IndustrialRevolution enclosure crop rotation industrialization factors ofproduction factory entrepreneurSETTING THE STAGE In the United States, France, and Latin America, politicalrevolutions brought in new governments. A different type of revolution now transformed the way people did work. The Industrial Revolution refers to the greatlyincreased output of machine-made goods that began in England during the 18thcentury. Before the Industrial Revolution, people wove textiles by hand. Beginning inthe middle 1700s, machines did this and other jobs as well. The Industrial Revolutionstarted in England and soon spread to Continental Europe and North America.The Industrial Revolution BeginsBy 1700, small farms covered England’s landscape. Wealthy landowners, however,bought up much of the land that village farmers had once worked. Beginning in theearly 1700s, large landowners dramatically improved farming methods. These agricultural changes amounted to an agricultural revolution. They eventually paved the wayfor the Industrial Revolution.A. Possible AnswerEnclosure resulted inexperiments with newagricultural methods,and it caused manysmall farmers to moveto the cities. Croprotation producedincreased yields.THINK THROUGH HISTORYA. RecognizingEffects What weresome of the effectsof enclosure andcrop rotation?The Agricultural Revolution After buying up the land of village farmers, wealthylandowners enclosed their land with fences or hedges. The increase in their landholdingsenabled them to cultivate larger fields, using new seeding and harvesting methods. Withinthese larger fields, called enclosures, landowners experimented to discover more productive farming methods to boost crop yields. The enclosure movement hadAgricultural Revolutiontwo important results. First, landowners experimented with new agricultural methods. Second, large landowners forced small farmers toJethro Tull’s Seed Drillbecome tenant farmers or to give up farming and move to the cities.Jethro Tull was one of the first of these scientific farmers. He sawthat the usual way of sowing seed by scattering it across the groundwas wasteful. Many of the seeds failed to take root. He solved thisproblem with an invention called the seed drill in about 1701. Theseed drill allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specificdepths. A larger share of the seed germinated, boosting crop yields.Crop Rotation The process of crop rotation proved to be one ofthe best developments of the scientific farmers. The process improvedupon older methods of crop rotation, such as the medieval three-fieldThe seed drill enabled farmers tosystem. One year, for example, a farmer might plant a field with wheat,plant methodically. They abandonedwhich exhausted soil nutrients. The next year he planted a root crop,the wasteful broadcast method ofsuch as turnips, to restore nutrients. This might be followed in turn byscattering handfuls of seed acrossbarley, then clover.the fields.Livestock breeders improved their methods, too. In the 1700s, forexample, Robert Bakewell increased his mutton output by allowingonly his best sheep to breed. Other farmers followed Bakewell’s lead. Between1700 and 1786 the average weight for lambs climbed from 18 to 50 pounds.The Industrial Revolution 633

633-637-0625s110/11/024:34 PMPage 634Page 2 of 5These improvements in farming that began in the early 1700s made up an agriculturalrevolution. As food supplies increased and living conditions improved, England’s population mushroomed. An increasing population boosted the demand for food and goods. Asfarmers lost their land to large enclosed farms, many became factory workers.Britain’s Advantages Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in England? Inaddition to a large population of workers, the small island country had extensive naturalresources. And industrialization—the process of developing machine production ofgoods—required such resources. These natural resources included 1) water power andcoal to fuel the new machines; 2) iron ore to construct machines, tools, and buildings;3) rivers for inland transportation; 4) harbors from which its merchant ships set sail.THINK THROUGH HISTORYB. RecognizingEffects How didpopulation growthspur the IndustrialRevolution?B. Possible AnswerA population explosion pushed farmersoff the land, sentworkers to the cities,and created a readymarket for new goods.Economic Strength and Political Stability In addition to its natural resources,Britain had an expanding economy to support industrialization. Businesspeopleinvested in the manufacture of new inventions. Britain’s highly developed bankingsystem also contributed to the country’s industrialization. People were encouraged bythe availability of bank loans to invest in new machinery and expand their operations.Growing overseas trade, economic prosperity, and a climate of progress contributed tothe increased demand for goods.Britain’s political stability gave the country a tremendous advantage over its neighbors.Though Britain took part in many wars during the 1700s, none of these struggles occurredon British soil. Furthermore, their military and political successes gave the British a positive attitude. Parliament also passed laws that protected business and helped expansion.Other countries had some of these advantages. However, Britain had all the factors ofproduction. These were the resources needed to produce goods and services that theIndustrial Revolution required. They included land, labor, and capital (or wealth).GlobalImpact : Revolutions in TechnologyTechnology in the Textile IndustryThe Industrial Revolution that began in Britain was spurred by a revolution intechnology. This is most obvious in the textile industry where inventions in thelate 1700s transformed the manufacture of cloth. These developments, in turn,had an impact on the rest of the world. For example, England’s cotton camefrom plantations in the American South, where cotton production skyrocketedfrom 1790 to 1810 in response to demand from the textile mills of England.John Kay’s flyingshuttle speedilycarried threadsof yarn back andforth when theweaver pulled ahandle. The flyingshuttle greatlyincreased theproductivityof weavers.634 Chapter 25James Hargreaves’s spinningjenny dramatically increasedthe output of spinners. Ithelped them to keep pacewith the weavers.C. Possible AnswerStudents will probablysurmise that Britain’sadvantages and earlyindustrialization musthave contributed toits general prosperity.THINK THROUGH HISTORYC. MakingInferences Howmight Britain’s advantages and early industrialization haveaffected its prosperityin the 19th century?

633-637-0625s110/11/024:34 PMPage 635Page 3 of 5Inventions Spur Technological AdvancesIn an explosion of creativity, inventions now revolutionized industry. Britain’s textileindustry clothed the world in wool, linen, and cotton. This industry was the first to betransformed. Cloth merchants boosted their profits by speeding up the process bywhich spinners and weavers made cloth.BackgroundThe spinning mule wasso named because, justas a mule is the offspring of a horse anddonkey, this machinewas the offspring oftwo inventions.Major Inventions in the Textile Industry By 1800, several major inventions hadmodernized the cotton industry. One invention led to another. In 1733, a machinistnamed John Kay made a shuttle that sped back and forth on wheels. This flying shuttle,a boat-shaped piece of wood to which yarn was attached, doubled the work a weavercould do in a day.Because spinners could not keep up with these speedy weavers, a cash prize attractedcontestants to produce a better spinning machine. Around 1764, a textile worker namedJames Hargreaves invented a spinning wheel he named after his daughter. Hargreaves’sspinning jenny allowed one spinner to work eight threads at a time.At first, textile workers operated the flying shuttle and the spinning jenny by hand.Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1769. The machine used the waterpower from rapid streams to drive spinning wheels.In 1779, Samuel Crompton combined features of the spinning jenny and thewater frame to produce the spinning mule. The spinning mule made thread that wasstronger, finer, and more consistent than earlier spinning machines. Run by waterpower, Edmund Cartwright’s power loom sped up weaving after its invention in 1787.The water frame, the spinning mule, and the power loom were bulky and expensivemachines. They took the work of spinning and weaving out of the house. Wealthytextile merchants set up the machines in large buildings called factories. At first,Connect—Scottish writer Thomas Carlylein 1843Synthesizing Technologicalinnovation and industrializationtook place in the textile industryduring the Industrial Revolution.How100might these forces have provided a model for other industries?)All work, even cottonspinning, is noble; workis alone noble.to History90SEE SKILLBUILDERHANDBOOK, PAGE R18Connectto TodayHypothesizing How might thetextile industry be affected bynew technology, including thecomputer?Patterns of InteractionThe first factories werebuilt to house spinning andweaving machines in thetextile industry and to keepthe processes secret. Suchfactories were built close torivers and streams, whichprovided a source of energy.Inventions in the textile industry started in Britain and brought about theIndustrial Revolution. This revolution soon spread to other countries inEurope and the United States. The process of industrialization is stillspreading around the world, especially in Third World countries. A similartechnological revolution is occurring in today’s world of electronics. Thetelephone, television, and (more recently) the computer and the Internetare transforming the spread of information around the world.VIDEO Technology Transforms An Age:The Industrial and Electronic RevolutionsThe Industrial Revolution 635

633-637-0625s110/11/024:34 PMPage 636Page 4 of 5the new factories needed waterpower, so they were built near sources of water suchas rivers and streams:A V O I C E F R O M T H E PA S T. . . A great number of streams . . . furnish water-po