ASC 300 Meat Science“America runs on meat!!”-2010-“The General”, Cigar Dave; Cigar Dave Show-

Dr. Gregg Rentfrow, PhD Shelbyville, IL– 1987– FFA & 4-H Lake Land College, Mattoon, IL University of Illinois– Meats Judging Team & Meat Animal Evaluation Team– BS & MS University of Missouri– Coached Meats Judging Team– PhD University of Kentucky– Extension Meats Specialist Married, 1 daughter, 1 Golden Retriever, 2 Cats Motorcycles, Powerlifting, & Cigars

What are the functions of muscle,Why should we study muscles? LocomotionProtectionThermogenesisAttractionSexual functionDigestionMost abundant tissueUm, Um TastyHigh protein source

How it all began First butcher 3.4 million yearsago Domestication of animals– Goat 9,000 years ago– Sheep 7,000– Pig 9,000– Cattle 5,000– Chicken 5,500 Home-based slaughter Local processor/ButcherShop Large scale, centralizedprocessing

Who is often credited with beingthe first US meat processor?

Sam Wilson

Development of the Industry Porkopolis Cincinnati 1818 Elisa Mills opens Ohio’sfirst slaughter house Salt pork a common food staple Largest pork processor, due toaccess to river 1829 – Cincinnatians and theworld began to call Cinncy“Porkopolis” 1861 – the railroad killed themeats industry in Cincinnati, nopun intended!

Development of the Railroad Mississippi River, shutdown during Civil War Chicago was quicklybecoming a hub ofrailroads due towestward expansion Chicago had severalsmall stockyards andsmall butchersthroughout the city The city became alogical location for thelivestock and meatsindustry

The Start of the Modern Industry 9 Railroad companiesjoined together andpurchased 320 acresSouthwest of Chicago Soon Livestock penswere built & 15 miles oftrack connected thestockyards to the mainrail hub Dec. 25th, 1865 UnionStock Yard & TransitCo. was opened

Union Stock Yards 25,000 immigrantworkers Armour was thefirst meatprocessor Swift, Morris, andHammond followed 500,000 gallons ofwater used daily

Union Stock Yards 1900 50 miles of road &130 miles of railroadtrack around theparameter 475 acres 82% of meatconsumed

Union Stock Yards Post WWII Interstate Highway system 1954 the first meatprocessors closed doors Property taxes, urbansprawl, anti-pollution laws Midnight, July 31st, 1971

Contributions Insulated rail cars Perfection of mechanicalrefrigeration Refrigerated rail cars The assembly line Chicago Board of Tradeand the futures market Changed the flow of theChicago River Meat Inspection

Meat Inspection Ensure thewholesomeness Healthy Animals (nodiseases) Facilities are cleanand sanitary Proper labeling ofmeat products Mandatory, paidthrough taxes

The Law! Meat Inspection 1891 – First meatinspection act Called for voluntaryinspection of livestockand meat intended forinterstate and foreigncommerce Do we still operateunder this law?

Legal StuffMeat Inspection came about due to a bookabout the Chicago Meat Industry The Jungle; by Upton Sinclair Listen to this passage .

Current Meat Inspection The Federal Meat InspectionAct of 1906 Mandated that a federal meatinspector be present at anypacking plant processing meatfor interstate commerce Started October 1, 1906 Two types of inspectionpractices:– Antemortem Inspection– Postmortem Inspection

What Happens?: Antemortem Inspector will:– Walk the pens prior to slaughter US Suspect – seriously crippled, minor eyeproblems US Condemned – downers (cattle), deads,moribund (about to die), comatose, temperatureabove 105 F (106 F swine), suspect dies in pen,obvious signs of disease

What happens?: Postmortem Inspector will:– Facilities are clean and sanitary– Ensure humane handling & slaughter Inspects the head (cattle, swine), viscera,and carcass US Retained – temporary, but can becondemned. Can retain whole carcass orpart of a carcass US Condemned – cannot enter food chain!Tuberculosis, hog cholera, pneumonia,abscesses, arthritis, bruises, contaminationfrom kill floor

Types of Meat Inspection Custom Contract between livestockproducer and processor; must be labeled“NOT FOR SALE” What’s the difference between Federal andState Inspection? Federal any of the 50 states State within state lines

Other red letter dates! Meat Inspection was laterbroadened to include Horse Meat Act: 1919 Imported Meat Act: 1930 Humane Slaughter Act:1958, 1973, 2002 Poultry Producer MeatAct: 1959 Wholesome Meat Act:1967 HACCP (Final Rule): 1997 Country of OriginLabeling (COOL): 2008

Total Muscle Protein Consumption in theUnited States (1910-2008)

We eat a lot of meat! Per capita consumption of red meat, poultry,and fish, boneless 2000 – 196.72001 – 196.72002 – 200.32003 – 1992004 – 201.32005 – 199.82006 – 200.92007 – 200.42008 – 196.9Source:

Per Capita Consumption ‘05 – ‘08

Consumption Data

Fun History; SPAM Created in 1937 Spiced Ham Not– Stuff Posing As Meat, Shoulder Pork AndHam, Scientifically Processed ArtificialMeat, Special Product of Austin Minnesota #1 meat in Hawaii and Guam (16 tinsper person)

am (original)Spam Hickory SmokedSpam Hot and Spicy (Tabasco)Spam Less Sodium (25% less sodium)Spam Lite (25% less cal, 50% less fat)Spam Oven Roasted TurkeySpam with BaconSpam with CheeseSpam GarlicSpam Golden Honey Grail (Monty Python’s Spamalot)Spam SpreadSpam Hawaii

How have animals changed? More and more crossbreedingComposite breedsEPD’s (Expected Progeny Differences)Cattle; everything black– “Belt Buckle Cattle” to “Sky Scraper Cattle” Pigs; everything white– Fat to extremely lean Goats

Objective To assess differences in economicallyimportant traits between pigsrepresentative of 1980 and 2005commercial industry when fed feedingprograms representative of the sametime periods Differences in Economically Important Traits of 1980 vs. 2005 PigsWhen Fed 1980 or 2005 Feeding Programs;– J. S. Fix*, D. J. Hanson, E. van Heugten, J. P. Cassady and M.T. See

Carcass DataGenetics1980Diet198010th rib fat, in1.23LEA, sq inch5.89Color Score2.33Marbling 198020051.037.452.161.6320051980200519802005ADG, lbsADFI, 30.380.42


The Current Industry Plants have moved tothe animals Clean and Sanitary Humane Handling Automated Slaughter Rates: Cattle 450 to 500/h Pigs 1,000 to 1,300/h Chickens 12,000/h;200,000/d

Top Companies1.) Tyson Foods, 26,704 millions, 93Plants2.) Cargill Meat Solutions, 15,000 millions,21 Plants3.) Smithfield Foods, Inc, 12,488 millions,34 Plants4.) JBS USA Holdings Inc, 9,350 millions,13 Plants5.) Pilgrim’s Pride Corp, 7,100 millions, 38Plants

The Winds of Change! How have things changed in the last 100years?Vertical IntegrationAnimal HandlingAnimal Welfare/RightsGround BeefBSE, H1N1 Virus (Swine Flu), Foot and MouthDisease– HACCP– Export– Country of Origin Labeling–––––

Current TrendsConvenienceFast, Fast, Faster4:30 pm meal solutionOrganicNaturalFamily raised, locally grown (KentuckyProud), Free range, Free roaming, PredatorFriendly Grass/ Forage Fed No Nitrites Added

Essential Question What is meat quality? Described as:– Color– Marbling– Tenderness But everything we cover will affect one, two,or all three of these factors We’ll start from the beginning to hot dogs

Be gone children, get out of here